Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 11/4/2014
Publication Date: 11/14/2014
Citation: Cheuk, S.Y., Shih, F.F., Champagne, E.T., Daigle, K.W., Patindol, J.A., Mattison, C.P., Boue, S.M. 2014. Nano-encapsulation of coenzyme Q10 using octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch. Food Chemistry. 17:585-590.
Interpretive Summary: Modified starch encompasses a wide range of starches that has been physically and/or chemically altered. The alteration is done to give starch an abundant and renewable natural resource, new properties, and new purposes from consumables and cosmetics. In this study, the starch was physically altered through pregelatinization, a process which allows the starch to disperse and absorb water easily; and chemically altered using a lipid soluble compound called octenyl succinic anhydride, which imparts some hydrophobicity to the starch. This form of modified starch was used to entrap Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), the third most consumed nutritional supplement, and processed into the nanometer scale using high pressure homogenization. After freeze-drying, the particles exhibited excellent dispersability and thermostability, but was able to be readily broken down in the presence of amylase, releasing the entrapped CoQ10. This CoQ10 formulation is suitable for enhancing the nutritional profile of fruit beverages and baked goods.
Technical Abstract: Octenyl succinic anhydride modified starch (OSA-ST) was used to encapsulate Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 was dissolved in rice bran oil (RBO), and incorporated into an aqueous OSA-ST solution. High pressure homogenization (HPH) of the mixture was conducted at 170 MPa for 5-6 cycles. The resulting emulsion had a particle size (Z-average) range of 250-300 nm (PDI range of 0.100 to 0.250), and the absolute zeta potential ('abs) varied between 8.4 to 10.6 mV. CoQ10 retention of the emulsion and freeze dried products determined by a hexane rinse, was >98%. There was a notable increase in the 'abs potential from 10 mV of the freshly homogenized solution to 25 mV after freeze drying and redispersion in water. Reconstitution of the freeze dried product in McIlvaine citrate-phosphate buffers, with pH values of 3 to 5, and temperatures at 4°C and 25°C had no effect on the range and distribution of the nanoparticles’ size. At pH 7, size increased 20-60% with a corresponding decrease in the 'abs (>30%). The inflection point of the 'abs and pH plot occurred at the first pKa of succinic acid (pH 4.2), indicating succinate as the main influence over 'abs. At higher pH values (5 to 7), 'abs peaked at eight days of storage for both temperatures, but emulsions separated (creaming) earlier at pH 7. The CoQ10 UV-vis spectrum remained unchanged over the course of the study and three months thereafter.