|KIM, HYUNSOOK - University Of California|
|ARVIK, TOREY - Sonomaceuticals Llc|
|LIPSON, REBECCA - Sonomaceuticals Llc|
|SEO, KUNHO - Konkuk University|
|Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/11/2014
Publication Date: 2/26/2014
Citation: Kim, H., Bartley, G.E., Arvik, T., Lipson, R., Seo, K., Yokoyama, W.H. 2014. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(8):1919-1925.
Interpretive Summary: Small amounts of red wine intake is generally regarded as healthful. We found that the polyphenolic antioxidant content of white wine grape seeds, particularly Chardonnay, was higher than red wine grape seeds. This may be partly due to processing, since the polyphenolics from seeds of red wine grapes may be extracted during the fermentation process. White wine grape seeds are removed before fermentation. Chardonnay seeds decreased plasma cholesterol and liver lipids. Liver, intestinal and adipose genes show changes in cholesterol metabolism and absorption, inflammation, and fat synthesis.
Technical Abstract: The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for three weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the SyrSd, CabSd and control. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal SRB1 was down-regulated by ChrSd, indicating a reduction of ileal cholesterol reabsorption. The anti-obesity effect of the ChrSd diet was related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that polyphenol-rich Chardonnay grape seed derived from white wine processing induced cholesterol-lowering, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver, intestine, and adipose tissue.