|YI, JIANG - Jiangnan University|
|Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally|
|ZHONG, FANG - Jiangnan University|
Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/14/2014
Publication Date: 2/5/2014
Citation: Yi, J., Lam, T.I., Yokoyama, W.H., Cheng, L.W., Zhong, F. 2014. Cellular uptake of beta-carotene from protein stabilized solid lipid nano-particles prepared by homogenization-evaporation method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 62(5):1096-104.
Interpretive Summary: Beta-carotene is the plant source of retinol (Vitamin A) and other bioactive related compounds. Recently, beta-carotene has been related to lowered weight gain in growing animals including humans possibly through retinol’s necessary association with regulators of energy metabolism. The bioavailability of beta-carotene is extremely low mainly due to its insolubility in water and very low solubility in lipids. Delivery of beta-carotene in nano-particles made up of food grade encapsulating materials (casein, whey, soy protein) is shown to increase beta-carotene in the aqueous phase (bioaccessibility) after simulated digestion.
Technical Abstract: Using a homogenization-evaporation method, beta-carotene (BC) loaded nano-particles were prepared with different ratios of food-grade sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or soy protein isolate (SPI) to BC and evaluated for their physiochemical stability, in vitro cytotoxicity, and cellular uptake by Caco-2 cells. The particle diameter of the BC-loaded nano-particles with 0.75% SC or 1.0% WPI emulsifiers were 75 and 90 nm, respectively. Mean particle diameters of three BC nano-particle nanoemulsions increased during 30 days of storage. The oxidative stability of BC nano-particles encapsulated by proteins decreased in the order: SC>WPI>SPI. The BC’s chemical stability was improved by increasing the concentration of protein. Both the rate of particle growth and the total BC loss at 25 °C were larger than at 4 °C. During the storage period, the color of BC nano-particles changed gradually with the increase of storage duration in the dark without oxygen and was also consistent with the change in BC nano-particles at both temperatures. Almost no cytotoxicity due to BC nano-particles cellular uptake was observed, especially when diluted ten times or more. The bioavailability of BC was significantly improved through nano-particles delivery systems as compared to the free BC. The results of this study indicate that protein-stabilized, BC-loaded nano-particles can improve stability and bioavailability of BC.