Submitted to: Florida Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/15/2011
Publication Date: 9/15/2011
Citation: Leblanc, L., Vargas, R.I., Mackey, B.E., Putoa, R., Pinero, J. 2011. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti. Florida Entomologist. 94(3): 510-516. Interpretive Summary: Current methods utilized throughout Pacific Island Nations, Australia, and the U.S. mainland for rapid detection of accidental introductions of fruit flies require the deployment of large numbers of traps baited with highly attractive male-specific lures. However, one important safety concern of large trapping systems is that detection traps are currently deployed in association with liquid formulations of toxic organophosphate insecticides such as malathion and naled. Concerns for use of organophosphate insecticides in residential areas has raised serious environmental/human health concerns. Safer alternatives to organophosphate insecticides for fruit fly monitoring and control have been developed by the Hawaii Fruit Fly Area-Wide Pest Management (AWPM) Program, funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS). The AWPM program successfully integrated environmentally friendly integrated pest management (IPM) technologies into a comprehensive fruit fly management package. Some of the novel IPM technologies include the use of SPLAT (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology) Male Annihilation Treatment (MAT) containing fruit fly lures Methyl Eugenol (ME) of Cue-Lure (C-L) that also contained the reduced risk insecticide spinosad. Previous research in Hawaii has shown that SPLAT-MAT-ME or C-L with spinosad was an effective fruit fly control method and could replace liquid lures and organophosphate insecticides. This study compared the performance of ME and C-L monitoring traps with novel solid lure and insecticide formulations at capturing B. tyroni and B. dorsalis on Tahiti Island in French Polynesia. Results indicate that novel lures and SPLAT-MAT-ME or C-L are promising substitutes to traditional trapping methods using liquid lures mixed with organophosphates. Environmentally friendly alternatives in conjuction with protein bait sprays and sanitation could be implemented in AWPM programs for eradication of accidental fruit fly introductions.
Technical Abstract: Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitoring and control systems using liquid formulations of attractant and organophosphate insecticides. Captures of B. tyroni in traps with BactroMAT C-L stations, Mallet C-L, Mallet MC wafers (containing both ME and RK), and SPLAT C-L were as high as with the standard liquid C-L formulation until 8 weeks, after which there was a drop in effectiveness of Mallet C-L. Captures of B. dorsalis with Mallet ME wafers outperformed any other ME formulation. Combining ME and RK in a single Mallet MC wafer did not reduce captures of B. tyroni and B. dorsalis in comparison with traps baited with a single liquid lure, suggesting solid Mallet dispensers with RK are longer lasting than those with C-L. For control applications, weathered SPLAT-MAT-ME-spinosad was equal to fresh material for up to 4 weeks. SPLAT C-L was more persistent than weathered SPLAT ME under Tahitian climatic conditions suggesting SPLAT ME may need to be reapplied at shorter intervals and in greater amounts for suppression of B. dorsalis. Mallet ME and MC wafes and SPLAT-MAT-ME/C-L were more convenient and safer to handle than standard liquid insecticide formulations and should be considered for monitoring and control programs in Pacific Island nations. The Mallet MC wafer could be used in a single trap in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and C-L responding fruit flies, reducing trap and labor costs and in addition to SPLAT-MAT-ME or C-L for control should be tested further in Florida fruit fly programs.