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Title: Supplementation of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol lowering effect

item Kim, Hyunsook
item TUROWSKI, MACIEJ - Dow Chemical Company
item ANDERSON, W.H. KERR - Dow Chemical Company
item YOUNG, SCOTT - Dow Chemical Company
item KIM, YOOKYUNG - Korea University
item Yokoyama, Wallace - Wally

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/14/2011
Publication Date: 7/27/2011
Citation: Kim, H., Turowski, M., Anderson, W., Young, S.A., Kim, Y., Yokoyama, W.H. 2011. Supplementation of hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol lowering effect. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 59(14), pp. 7672–7678 doi: 10.1021/jf104821b.

Interpretive Summary: Breads made entirely from oat or barley were made by incorporating hydroxylpropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). HPMC is necessary to trap the gases produced by yeast during the dough making process but it also acts as a soluble dietary fiber to reduce plasma cholesterol. We show that at the levels utilized cholesterol is lowered in the blood and liver of fat fed hamsters.

Technical Abstract: Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) different ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Whole grain barley breads down-regulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoA genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread, despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring ß-glucan caused by the baking process. Barley bread enriched with HPMC down-regulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain wheat, barley breads, and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management.