Location: Bio-oils ResearchTitle: Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives Author
Submitted to: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/16/2010
Publication Date: 7/15/2010
Citation: Joshi, H., Moser, B.R., Shah, S.N., Mandalika, A., Walker, T. 2010. Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 112:802-809. Interpretive Summary: This research reveals that the oxidative stability and low temperature properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseed oil can be improved with commercial additives. The objectives of this study were to produce biodiesel from cottonseed oil and to evaluate its fuel properties, taking into consideration important biodiesel fuel standards. The oxidative stability and low temperature properties of biodiesel prepared from cottonseed oil were improved upon addition of additives. This result is important because, normally, two of the primary technical disadvantages of biodiesel versus petroleum diesel fuel are poor oxidative stability and poor low temperature performance. These results will be important to biodiesel producers, distributors and end-users (customers) because critical fuel properties of biodiesel were improved. This research may ultimately improve market penetration, availability and public perception of domestically produced agricultural fuels, such as biodiesel, thus affording greater national independence from imported petroleum-based fuels.
Technical Abstract: The low temperature operability and oxidative stability of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) oil methyl esters (CSME) were improved with addition of commercial additives. Four commercial anti-gel additives: Technol® B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver, Gunk® Premium Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, Heet® Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, and Howe’s Lubricator® Diesel Treat Conditioner and Anti-Gel, as well as one antioxidant additive, gossypol, were tested in this study. Addition of commercial additives resulted in improvement in the low temperature operability and oxidative stability of CSME, as determined by cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and oxidative stability index (OSI). The most significant reductions in CP, PP, and CFPP, in all cases, were obtained with Technol, with the average reduction in temperature for these properties found to be 3.9 deg. C. Gunk®, Heet® and Howe’s® were progressively less effective, as indicated by average reductions in temperature of 3.4, 3.0 and 2.8 deg. C, respectively, suggesting that Technol® may be the most prudent choice among these when considering cold flow improver additives for biodiesel. In all cases, the magnitude of CFPP reduction was greater than for PP and especially CP. Addition of gossypol, a polyphenolic aldehyde, resulted in linear improvement in OSI (R2=0.9804), indicating that exogenous gossypol inhibits oxidation of CSME. The OSI of CSME increased from 5.0 h to 8.3 h upon addition of gossypol at a concentration of 1,000 ppm, suggesting the most prudent concentration choice when considering gossypol-CSME blends.