Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/1/2008
Publication Date: 10/1/2008
Citation: Gajula, H., Alavi, S., Adhikari, K., Herald, T.J. 2008. Precooked Bran-Enriched Wheat Flour Using Extrusion: Dietary Fiber Profile and Sensory Characteristics. Journal of Food Science. 73(4):S173-S177. Interpretive Summary: Consumers recognize the importance of dietary fiber to reduce serum cholesterol, cardiovascular and some cancers. Whole wheat flour and wheat bran are two of the most commonly used and important sources of dietary fiber. Extrusion processing was investigated to determine if this processing technology offers any additionally advantage to improve quality attributes of foods manufactured with dietary fiber. Cookies and tortillas were used as model food system to evaluate dietary fiber process with an extruder. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however the process did improve the products dietary fiber profile the soluble dietary fiber.
Technical Abstract: The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%,10%,20%,and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran,total dietary fiber(TDF)and soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5% to 2.4%, respectively.Precooking by extrusion significantly increased SDF in flours (by 22% to 73%); although in most cases it also led to a significant decrease in TDF. Cookies and tortillas produced from uncooked and precooked flours with 0% and 20% substituted bran were evaluated for consumer acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. With a few exceptions, all cookies had scores ranging from 6 to 7 (“like slightly” to “like moderately”) for each attribute, including overall acceptability, appearance, texture, crumbliness, and flavor. Tortillas were rated for the same attributes except for crumbliness, which was replaced with chewiness. In most cases,tortilla scores ranged from 5 to 7 (“neither like nor dislike”to “like moderately”). Consumer acceptability scores of cookies from uncooked flour did not change significantly with increase in bran substitution from 0% to 20%. However,consumer scores for tortillas did decrease significantly with increase in bran level. Extrusion precooking of the flours did not improve the consumer acceptability of cookies and tortillas; however,it did improve their dietary fiber profile by increasing the SDF significantly.