Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/16/2009
Publication Date: 8/15/2009
Citation: Koskinen, W.C. 2009. Characterization of Pesticide Availability/Bioavailability in Soils [abstract]. American Chemical Society. 77:118.
Technical Abstract: Availability/bioavailability of pesticides in soil is the integration of various processes and controls pesticide transport to water and air, exposure to and uptake by target and nontarget organisms, and degradation. Of the various processes, sorption-desorption is arguably the most important; it directly or indirectly controls all other processes. Characterization of availability has traditionally been through indirect methods such as the batch equilibration method to determine sorption coefficients and the amounts of aqueous and solvent extractable pesticide. Other methods include column techniques to determine pesticide in soil water at typical field moisture levels and isotopic exchange techniques, which determine unavailable pesticide. Direct methods include use of specific pesticide-degrading microorganisms. The potential problems/criticisms and advantages of these techniques will be discussed. After 40 years of research, there is still no universal method to characterize availability. The topic is wide open and we need to look for innovative methods. Some possibilities for future directions will also be discussed.