Submitted to: American Entomologist
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/30/2009
Publication Date: 3/30/2010
Citation: Froerer, K., Peck, S.L., Mcquate, G.T., Vargas, R.I., Jang, E.B., Mcinnis, D.O. 2010. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?. American Entomologist. 56:88-94. Interpretive Summary: The establishment of tephritid fruit flies, such as the oriental fly, in an area may stop exportation of fruits and vegetables to other regions or countries unless some means are established to ensure that the flies are not introduced to recipient areas along with the produce. Among measures that could be used to reduce the threat of accidental introduction of tephritid fruit flies is to establish infestation-free production areas or production areas where tephritied fruit fly populations are maintained below a specified low level ("low prevalence zones"). In establishing such areas, it is important to consider the risk of fruit fly immigration from source populations outside the production area because suppression of an area may be futile if source populations outside of that are are capable of moving into and re-establishing populations within the suppression area. In this study, we mark, release and recapture oriental fruit flies to investigate how far the oriental fruit fly can potentially move. Double-marked, sterile, laboratory-reared oriental fruit flies were released at four different distances from an experimental fruit fly suppression zone with in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. The results of this study confirm the ability of the oriental fruit fly to move long distances, with many flies recovered at distances between 2 - 11.39km. These long distance recaptures will benefit consideration of dimensions needed for buffer zones that would be needed for the establishment of infestation free or low prevalence zones.
Technical Abstract: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture - Agriculture Research Service) area-wide program. There is some discussion concerning the feasibility of eradication of the oriental fruit fly in areas on the island of Hawaii. An important aspect of population suppression is concerned with the ability of a species to move long distances. Suppression of an area may be futile if source populations outside of that area are capable of moving into and re-establishing populations within the suppression area. While most movement studies focus on the short distance dispersal of flies from a single release point, this study aimed to explore the longer tails of the dispersal distribution suspected for many tephritids. Four releases of double-marked, sterile, laboratory-reared oriental fruit flies were completed. The releases took place at four different distances from an experimental fruit fly suppression zone within the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Flies captured in methyl eugenol traps and protein bait traps were collected and examined for the mark. Many flies were recovered at long distances between 2 - 11.39km. These long distance recaptures aid in understanding the long tails of spatial distribution of fly movement that have been suspected of this species, and will benefit consideration of dimensions for buffer zones that would be needed for the establishment of infestation free or low prevalence zones.