Submitted to: Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/20/2009
Publication Date: 3/30/2009
Citation: Chung, S., Champagne, E.T. 2009. Reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter by phenolic compounds. Food Chemistry. 115:1345-1349. Interpretive Summary: Phenolic compounds are natural food components with antioxidant activities commonly found in fruits, vegetables, and plants. They can react with proteins to form insoluble complexes or pellets. In this study, we demonstrated that peanut allergens from a peanut extract and liquid peanut butter were able to form insoluble complexes with simple phenolic compounds, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids. The complex formation was shown to be irreversible, indicating that they may be indigestible and non-absorbable. The end result of the complex formation was that levels of soluble peanut allergens and allergenic capacity of the peanut extract and liquid peanut butter were reduced. We concluded that phenolic compounds were capable of reducing the allergenic capacity of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. Further clinical studies are needed in order to determine if such treatment is a way to develop less allergenic liquid peanut-based products.
Technical Abstract: Phenolic compounds are known to form soluble and insoluble complexes with proteins. The objective of this study was to determine if phenolics, such as, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ferulic acids form insoluble and irreversible complexes with major peanut allergens. We also tested whether such complexation reduces immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding of peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter. After adding each of the phenolics to peanut extracts and liquid peanut butter (including stirring for 60 min and centrifugation), the soluble materials were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and inhibition ELISA. Results showed that addition of the phenolics precipitated most of the major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2. The complexes were insoluble in 1 M NaCl or 2 M urea, indicating that complexation was irreversible. IgE binding was reduced approximately 10- to 16-fold in the treated extracts and liquid peanut butter. We concluded that reducing IgE binding by monomeric phenolics is feasible. Further clinical studies are needed in order to determine if such treatment is a way to develop less allergenic liquid peanut-based products.