|Tilley, Michael - Mike|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer reviewed journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/20/2006
Publication Date: 11/1/2006
Citation: Tilley, M., Pierucci, V., Tilley, K.A., Chung, O.K. 2006. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat. Journal of Food Science. 27(11):152-158. Interpretive Summary: Tortillas have become the most prevalent ethnic bread in the U.S., often replacing white pan bread in many products. As a result, tortillas are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. baking industry with annual sales over US$6 billion and growth exceeding 10% per year. The majority of tortillas consumed in the U.S. are made from wheat flour, although traditional maize tortillas are also produced. Wheat flour tortillas are made from hard red winter wheat (HRW) that has been bred for optimal bread production. Hard white winter wheat (HWW) offers economic benefits that are associated with HWW, mainly the higher milling extraction and color advantages over HRW. HWW can be milled to greater extraction rate with a concomitant increase in protein content when milled to the same color. Additional advantages include color properties that are more desirable for products such as Asian noodles and tortillas. This project examined the properties of HWW wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production by comparing HWW and HRW flour milled to 80% extraction HRW to 72% extraction commercial tortilla flour. All of the HWW wheat flours milled to 80% extraction produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to, those made from 80% extraction HRW wheat flours and 72% extraction commercial tortilla flour.
Technical Abstract: The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties, dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. All of the Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to, those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.