Submitted to: Proceedings of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers International (ASABE)
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/9/2006
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Controlling mycotoxin formation by fungi growing in and on cereal grains involves a multifactorial approach for defining multiple variables. The scope includes varietial (maturity, date, GMO) selection, tillage (time, depth), planting (density, spacing), fertilizion (type, amount, timing), irrigation, pesticides, procedures from stalk to storage bin (combines, grain carts, semitrailers, augers and dryers) and transfer devices from initial storage to processing units. Other considerations include operator acuity, organic growing methodologies, growing seasons, heat days, critical rainfalls, late freezes, early frosts, pulse field, electron beam irradiation and broken corn and foreign material (BCFM). Collection of usable data for future modeling that integrates technological advancements with practical applications, necessitates initial multidisciplinary input, continued attention to details and realistic conclusions which can be utilized by personnel throughout the system. A primary consideration for interventions will be economic return for directly involved individuals as well as personal and portfolio investors and representatives from loaning agencies. Most plant biomaterials evolved to assist in avoidance of predators. Cultivating cereal grains under conditions of environmental duress results in elevated levels of polyphenols. Grain compositional characteristics resulting from sustainable (status quo) vs progressive agricultural practices must be reviewed in the context of food safety. Establishing programs to support research and transfer new knowledge must be integral to designing overall management systems. For successful implementation, program recommendations programs must provide relevant information. Development of regulatory procedures must be based on both scientific and practical considerations to result in relevant impacts. Five mycotoxins associated with corn, milo and sorghum are: aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON)(vomitoxin), fumonisin, ochratoxin and zearalonone.