|Juvvadi, Praveen Rao|
Submitted to: Nature
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2005
Publication Date: 12/22/2005
Citation: Machida, M., Asai, K., Sano, M., Tanaka, T., Kumagai, T., Terai, G., Kusumoto, K., Arima, T., Akita, O., Kashiwagi, Y., Abe, K., Gomi, K., Horiuchi, H., Kitamoto, K., Kobayashi, T., Takeuchi, M., Denning, D.W., Galagan, J.E., Nierman, W.C., Yu, J., Archer, D., Bhatnagar, D., Cleveland, T.E., Gotoh, O., Horikawa, H., Hosoyama, A., Ichinomiya, M., Igarashi, R., Iwashita, K., Juvvadi, P., Kato, M., Kato, Y., Kin, T., Kokubun, A., Maeda, H., Maeyama, N., Maruyama, J., Nagasaki, H., Nakajima, T., Oda, K., Okada, K., Paulsen, I., Sakamoto, K., Sawano, T., Takahashi, M., Takase, K., Terabayashi, T., Wortman, J., Yamada, O., Yamagata, O., Anazawa, H., Hata, Y., Koide, Y., Komori, T., Koyama, Y., Minetoki, T., Suharnan, S., Tanaka, A., Isono, K., Kuhara, S., Ogasawara, N., Kikuchi, H. 2005. Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillus oryzae. Nature. 438(7071):1157-1161. Interpretive Summary: Aflatoxins are the most toxic and cancer-inducing compounds produced by certain fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. These compounds contaminate our food source such as corn, cotton, peanut, and tree nuts when the fungus infects crops. Understanding of the genetic and biochemical mechanisms of aflatoxin formation will provide valuable information on the control or elimination of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed. Aspergillus oryzae is an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods. A. oryzae is a close relative of A. flavus, which produces aflatoxins. The genome sequence of A. oryzae reveals a wealth of genetic information that scientists and researchers can compare with A. flavus and use to identify genes potentially involved in aflatoxin formation in A. flavus.
Technical Abstract: The genome of Aspergillus oryzae, an important industrial fungus used in the production of oriental fermented foods, such as soy sauce, miso, and sake, has been sequenced. The genome sequence reveals a wealth of genes encoding secreted enzymes. A comparison with the genome sequences of A. nidulans and A. fumigatus reveals that the A. oryzae genome is significantly larger than the other two genomes (6 Mb). In total, about 14,000 genes have been predicted, which is also 40 percent more than the other two genomes. This could be the result of acquisition during thousands of years of demastication and cultivation. Genes encoded by this acquired sequence are enriched for those predicted to be involved in metabolism, particularly in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. There is specific expansion of genes for secretary hydrolytic enzymes, amino acids metabolisms, and amino acids and sugar uptake transporters supporting the contention that A. oryzae is one of the ideal microorganisms for industrial fermentation.