|Schisler, David - Dave|
Submitted to: National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2004
Publication Date: 12/16/2004
Citation: Kolombet, L.V., Sokolov, M.S., Pavlov, T.V., Schisler, D.A., Samuels, G.J. 2004. The use of Tricoderma asperellum and the yeast Cryptoccus nodaenis in Russia to reduce fusarium head blight. National Fusarium Head Blight Forum Proceedings, December 11-15, 2004, Orlando, FL. p. 342. Interpretive Summary:
Technical Abstract: A unique biocontrol strategy that combines seed pretreatment with a biofungicide 'Mycol' (Trichoderma asperellum strain GJS 03-35) with spraying wheat plants during flowering with the yeast Cryptococcus nodaensis OH 182.9 (NRRL Y-30216) to reliably reduce Fusarium head blight (FHB) development have been developed. Tests of the 'Mycol' preparation and the yeast OH 182.9 (EOD) have been performed on the spring wheat "Ivolga" in greenhouse conditions (the Moscow region) and on the winter wheat "Kupava" in field trials in the North Caucasian region. An isolate of F. graminearum was used to insure adequate levels of disease development in greenhouse and field experiments. FHB severity and incidence, as well as mycotoxin accumulation in wheat grains, was studied for single or combination treatments with the biological preparations. Mycol (in concentrations 0.1; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 kg/1 metric ton of seeds) was used for wheat seed pretreatment. The yeast preparation EOD (2.0x10**7 cfu/ml) was applied by spraying wheat plants during flowering. Chemical pesticides (Raxyl, TMTD) and a biological preparation Agat-25K were used as alternative control seed treatments. In greenhouse experiments, inoculations of heads with either biological preparation 4 h prior to inoculation with conidia of F. graminearum significantly reduced FHB severity. For treatments consisting of Mycol and EOD, 1000 grain weights were equivalent or higher than for control plants (both infected and not infected). Wheat seeds obtained from the plants protected by these biological preparations germinated rapidly and possessed high germination rates compared to the FHB control. In field trials, Mycol treatments clearly reduced FHB symptoms, apparently providing an immunizing effect against FHB. Mycol reduced FHB severity and enhanced yield of the wheat varieties used. The effect of Mycol used at a minimum test-dose (0.1 kg/1 metric ton) was not so pronounced. The greatest reduction of FHB development was observed at a dose of Mycol of 1.0 kg per 1 metric ton of seeds used in combination with EOD spraying. Experimental results support the contention that the offered technology has good prospects in controlling FHB. The work was executed within the framework of partner ISTC project No. 2336p. The authors express sincere gratitude to participants of this research: V. P. Chuprina, N. M. Gopalo, A. A. Starshov, I. A. Sidorov, E. A. Esaulenko, N. I. Kosareva, S. K. Zhigletsova, E. V. Bystrova, V. V. Derbyshev, N. I. Kiseleva N.I.