Submitted to: International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/27/2003
Publication Date: 5/17/2004
Citation: Johnson, E.T., Dowd, P.F. 2004. Management of insects involved in pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination in maize [abstract]. International IUPAC Symposium on Mycotoxins and Phycotoxins. Abstract #C-06, p. 79.
Technical Abstract: The anthocyanins are synthesized by flowers primarily to attract pollinators and seed dispersers. A few studies have determined that some anthocyanin compounds can reduce insect feeding. Of several anthocyanins tested, we found that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside added to insect diet at 1000 ppm significantly reduced the growth of fall armyworms and cabbage loopers, while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside only reduced the growth of fall armyworms. The biologically active portion of delphinidin-3-O-glucoside appears to reside in the B phenyl ring since methylation to one or more hydroxyl groups on the B ring reduces the toxicity of this compound. We also measured the levels of insect feeding on leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic mutant that accumulates cyanidin-3-O-glucosides. The growth of fall armyworm larvae was significantly reduced on the cyanidin-3-O-glucoside accumulating leaves but cabbage looper larvae growth was not adversely affected. Together these results indicate that expression of relevant anthocyanin molecules at suitable levels may be an effective means to reduce insect predation of plant tissues, which can ultimately lower the levels of mycotoxins.