Submitted to: Chemotherapy
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/15/2005
Publication Date: 1/15/2006
Citation: De Lucca II, A.J., Bland, J.M., Boue, S.M., Vigo, C.B., Cleveland, T.E., Walsh, T.J. 2006. Synergism of Cay-1 with amphotericin B and itraconazole. Chemotherapy. 52:285-287.
Interpretive Summary: CAY-1, a detergent-like antifungal compound, is present in commercially ground cayenne pepper and paprika. Because CAY-1 comes from spices used for centuries in food preparation it may be generally regarded as safe (GRAS). It is highly lethal to some fungi but does not harm animal cells at concentrations needed to kill fungi. Drugs such as amphotericin B and itraconazole are currently used to treat fungal infections. However, they can produce bad side effects at the concentrations used. Tests showed that CAY-1 reduces the amount of either amphotericin B or itraconazole needed to kill fungi. This means the use of CAY-1 could reduce the bad side effects sometimes seen when these drugs are used. In separate experiments we showed that neither acid nor alkaline conditions reduce the ability of CAY-1 to kill fungi. These results indicate CAY-1 could be used to kill fungi regardless of conditions being acidic or alkaline. Together, these experiments indicate potential use of CAY-1 and therefore become a value added product to cayenne and paprika growers. CAY-1 could also prove useful in the treatment of fungal diseases.
Technical Abstract: CAY-1 is a fungicidal plant saponin (steroidal glycoside) produced by Capsicum frutescens. Minimal inhibition concentration studies show overall CAY-1 synergy with amphotericin B and itraconazole against nongerminated and germinating conidia of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, as well as Candida albicans at 24 and 48 hours. The fungicidal properties of CAY-1 remained intact over a broad pH range of 3 to 9.