Submitted to: Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes Symposium
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/20/2000
Publication Date: 10/20/2000
Citation: NEWTON, G.L., GASCHO, G.J., VELLIDIS, G., HUBBARD, R.K., GATES, R.N., LOWRANCE, R.R. LIQUID DAIRY MANURE FERTILIZATION OF TRIPLE-CROP FORAGE SYSTEMS. ANIMAL, AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD PROCESSING WASTES SYMPOSIUM, DES MOINES, IA. IN: MOORE, J.A.(ED.) ANIMAL AG. AND FOOD PROCESS WASTES ASAE. ST. JOSEPH, MI, P. 273-280. 2000. Interpretive Summary: Pollution of soil and water from agricultural effluents is a serious problem. In recent years animal feeding operations have changed from small farms to large confinement operations. Wastewater from these operations is commonly lagooned. Water from lagoons must be removed so that they will not overflow. Land treatment methods are needed for the lagoon wastewater that uses nutrients while not contaminating the environment. A study was conducted using dairy lagoon wastewater as a nutrient source for a multi- cropping system. Three crops were grown to investigate production and environmental effects of manure fertilization under intensive forage production. Crop sequences were corn silage-bermudagrass hay-rye/clover haylage or corn silage-corn silage-rye/clover haylage. Both systems received liquid dairy manure applied yr round or commercial fertilizer. Over the 2-yr period the sequence with two crops of corn silage produced 6% greater forage dry matter than the system of one crop of corn silage. Systems with manure fertilization produced 16% greater dry matter yields than commercial fertilizer. N recovery in crops from corn-bermuda-rye- clover was 86% for manure and 89% for fertilizer. For the corn-corn rye/ clover N recovery was 69% for manure and 70% for fertilizer. For manure treatments, an average of 42% of P was removed in forage. For fertilized treatments P removed in forage was equivalent to 204% of applied P, indicating that the forage was removing P from the readily available pool of soil P. Accumulation of P in soils fertilized with animal wastes is a common problem. Research showed that liquid dairy manure applied by center pivot is an effective fertilizer for two different haylage systems. Re- search meets goals of productive agric. while protecting environ. quality.
Technical Abstract: Three crops/yr were grown to investigate production/environmental effects of manure under forage production. Crop sequences were corn silage- bermudagrass hay-rye/clover (CBRC)or corn silage-corn silage-rye/clover (CCRC). Both systems received each of 2 fertilizer sources: liquid dairy manure (LDM) applied year round or commercial fertilizer (CF). For the LDM treatments the CBRC plots received 560,196, and 556 kg/ha/yr N, P, and K, while the CCRC plots received 560,197, and 593 kg/ha/yr N,P, and K. For the CF treatments the CBRC plots received 458, 32, and 237 kg/ha/yr N, P, and K,while the CCRC plots received 452, 32, and 237 kg/ha/yr N, P, and K. Over 2 years, the cropping sequence including 2 crops of corn silage produced 6% greater forage dry matter than the system of one crop of corn silage, and LDM produced 16% greater dry matter CF. For the 2 crop cycles, N recovery in crops for CBRC system was 86% for LDM and 89% for CF while for the CCRC system it was 69% for LDM and 70% for CF. For the LDM treatments, an average of 42% of the applied P was removed in forage. For the CF treatments the P removal was equivalent to 204% of the amount applied, indicating that the forage was removing P stored in the soil. K removal followed a pattern similar to that of P, with 72% of the LDM K and the equivalent of 143% of the CF K removed in forage. P removed by forage was 25% higher under LDM than under CF, while K removed by forage was 22% greater for LDM than for CF. For the LDM treatment, although P removal was high, the low removal of the total applied is problematic. Different management, including storage of some LDM during winter and an increase in the application area, including supplementing LDM with N, may be necessary to more nearly balance P application with LDM with uptake by forages.