Location: Dairy and Functional Foods Research
Project Number: 8072-41000-114-008-S
Project Type: Non-Assistance Cooperative Agreement
Start Date: Jul 30, 2020
End Date: Sep 30, 2024
There is a need to deliver critical macronutrient and phytonutrient analyses in high protein rice varieties and a key underutilized legume such as yellow beans to clearly define physiologically and chemically the differences between soaked versus geminated sprouted seeds. The most important physicochemical changes will be determined and conveyed into functional, value-added products developed from truly sprouted grains and legumes. During this collaboration, we propose to evaluate key changes in macronutrients and phytonutrients, and in the functional properties of sprouted brown rice and yellow beans in value-added food ingredients and beverages derived from the sprouts. Specific objectives for the collaboration are: 1. Study the functional properties of sprouted rice and African yellow beans. 2. To advance our knowledge of the nutritional and functional properties and potential health benefits of these crops and ultimately translate the outcomes of this work into other alternative protein sources for food. 3. Study the impact of selected processing treatments (sprouting) on in vitro protein digestibility and protein quality. 4. Optimize (re)formulations of protein blends that could partly or exclusively substitute traditional sources. 5. Assess the impact of processing on (sensory) acceptability (in) developed products. 6. Develop new market opportunities for novel plant-based products (new range of high-quality ingredients for plant-based foods, additives and beverages), from non-traditional and minimally processed protein sources (rice and African yellow beans), without compromising taste. 7. Increase options for vegans and vegetarians, winning new “souls” and decreasing meat-based protein consumption and environmental pressure of agricultural lands.
High-protein rice will be de-hulled and sorted/graded and African yellow beans seeds antimicrobial rinsed (Beaulieu et al., 2020a) then soaked/ germinated in a commercial seed sprouter (Rota-Tech 1000). We will analyze the sprouted/germinated crops to establish temporal boundaries between de novo synthesis of health-beneficial phytonutrient compounds versus catabolic change in macronutrients in FY21. In FY22 we will develop value-added products such as functional dry powders or flours and functional beverages. We will build a database of key macronutrient and phytonutrients changes during germination, which will ultimately deliver optimum timing for harvesting the sprouts. Rapid assessments (% germination, root/shoot length, moisture content and rapid visco analyzer) will be performed on samples collected every 6 to 12 h. Collected samples will be frozen (-80 °C) daily and freeze-dried prior to generating a natural ~3% moisture content powder. Agglomerated samples will be pulverized or milled into flour. Curated samples will be assessed over time, in both ARS and DSU labs. Proximate analysis of the materials will be performed according to standard/approved methods. In vitro protein digestibility and amino acid analyses will be used to screen for digestibility using the multi-enzyme method (Hsu et al. (1977), and protein quality calculated. Protein extract will be prepared by alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation (Aryee and Boye, 2016). Functional properties including water holding capacity, fat absorption capacity and protein solubility will be determined according to standard/approved methods. Total phenolic content will be measured with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (Beaulieu et al., 2020b). Polyphenols will be determined chromatographically. Tannin content and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) will be determined as described (Deshpande, et al., 1986; Kadake et al., (1974). Total flavonoid content will be determined as described (Stankovic, 2011). Free radical scavenging (antioxidant activity) of flours will be determined using the ABTS (Benzie & Strain, 1999; Re et al., 1999), stable DPPH radical (Garcia et al., 2012) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods (Benzie & Strain, 1999; Dudonne´ et al., 2009). Aerobic plate count (TPC) and yeast and molds may be monitored (AOAC, 2016; Tournas et al., 2001). In FY22, beverage production will be accomplished using similar methods previously reported (Beaulieu et al., 2020a; Beaulieu et al., 2017) after commercial-like sprouting. A commercial Wiley blender and Armfield Multi-purpose Processing emulsifier will be used to reduce particle size (Horiba Partica, LA-950V2) followed by in sito gelatinization, cooling and enzyme saccharification to develop beverages. Commercial-like pasteurization will be accomplished using a Microthermics electra UHT/HTSTLab 25DH in FY22. Sensory evaluation may be performed if feasible. Statistical design and analysis will be accomplished using JMP® 13 PRO for Windows. Contingency, the SRRC and DSU teams might not be capable to assess all desired parameters (e.g. minerals, vitamins or certain phytonutrients) in two years, in all experiments.