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Wade Crow

Research Physical Scientist

photo of Wade Crow
Wade T. Crow, Ph.D.
Research Physical Scientist
USDA-ARS Hydrology and Remote Sensing Laboratory
Bldg. 007, Rm. 104, BARC-West
Beltsville, MD 20705-2350 USA
Voice: (301) 504-6847
Fax: (301) 504-8931

Research Interests: (click here to see a list of current research projects)


Professional Experience:

Selected Awards:

Professional Service:

Selected Publications: (contact for unposted reprints)

(view author's publications/interpretive summaries/technical abstracts since 1999)

Crow, W.T. and Wood, E.F. Multi-scale dynamics of soil moisture variability observed during SGP'97. Geophysical Research Letters. 26(23):3485-3488. 10.1029/1999GL10880. 1999.

Crow, W.T., Wood, E.F. and Dubayah, R. Potential for downscaling soil moisture maps derived from spaceborne imaging radar data. Journal of Geophysical Research. 105(D2):2203-2212. 10.1029/1999JD901010. 2000.

View Paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T., Drusch, M. and Wood, E.F. An observation system simulation experiment for the impact of land surface heterogeneity on AMSR-E soil moisture retrieval. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 39(8):1622-1632. 10.1109/36.942540. 2001.

View Paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T. and Wood, E.F. Impact of soil moisture aggregation on surface energy flux prediction during SGP97. Geophysical Research Letters. 29(1). 10.1029/2001GL013796. 2002.

Crow, W.T. and Wood, E.F. The value of coarse-scale soil moisture observations for regional surface energy balance modeling. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 3:467-482. 2002.

Crow, W.T. and Wood, E.F. The assimilation of remotely sensed soil brightness temperature imagery into a land-surface model using ensemble Kalman filtering: a case study based on ESTAR measurements during SGP97. Advances in Water Resources. 26:137-149. 10.1016/S0309-1708(02)00088-X. 2003.

Crow, W.T. Correcting land surface model predictions for the impact of temporally sparse rainfall rate measurements using an Ensemble Kalman filter and surface brightness temperature observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 4(5):960-973. 2003.

Crow, W.T., Wood, E.F. and Pan, M. Multiobjective calibration of land surface model evapotranspiration predictions using streamflow observations and spaceborne surface radiometric temperature retrievals. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 108(D23). 10.1029/2002JD003292. 2003.

Dery, S.T., Crow, W.T., Stieglitz, M. and Wood, E.F. Modeling snow-cover heterogeneity over complex Artic terrain for regional and global climate models. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 5(1):33-48. 2004.

Gao, H., Wood, E.F., Drusch, M., Crow, W.T. and Jackson, T.J. Using a microwave emission model to estimate soil moisture from ESTAR observations during SGP99. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 5(1):49-63. 2004.

View Paper in pdf formatEntekhabi, D., Njoku, E., Houser, P., Spencer, M., Doiron, T., Smith, J., Girard, R., Belair, S., Crow, W. and twelve others. The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) satellite mission: An earth system pathfinder for global mapping of soil moisture and land freeze/thaw. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 42(10):2184-2195. 2004.

View paper in pdf formatCrow, W.T., Ryu, D. and Famiglietti, J.S. Upscaling of field-scale soil moisture measurements using distributed land surface modeling. Advances in Water Resources. 28(1):1-5. 2005.

Crow, W.T. and Kustas, W.P. Utility of assimilating surface radiometric temperature observations for evaporative fraction and heat transfer coefficient retrieval. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 115:105-130. 2005.

Crow, W.T., Chen, T., Entekhabi, D., Houser, P., Hsu, A., Jackson, T., Njoku, E., O'Neill, P., Shi, J. and Zhan, X. An observing system simulation experiment for Hydros radiometer-only soil moisture products. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 43(6):1289-1303. 2005.

Crow, W.T., Bindlish, R. and Jackson, T.J. The added value of spaceborne passive microwave soil moisture retrievals for forecasting rainfall-runoff partitioning. Geophysical Research Letters. 32. L18401. 10.1029/2005GL023543. 2005.

Crow, W.T., Li, F. and Kustas, W.P. Intercomparison of spatially explicit distributed models for predicting surface energy flux patterns during SMACEX.  Journal of Hydrometeorology. 6(6):941-953. 2005.

Crow, W.T., Koster, R.D., Reichle, R.H. and Sharif, H. Relevance of time-varying and time-invariant retrieval error sources on the utility of spaceborne soil moisture products. Geophysical Research Letters. 32. L24405. 10.1029/2005GL024889. 2005.

Crow, W.T., Entekhabi, D., Koster, R.D. and Reichle, R.H. Multiple spaceborne water cycle observations would aid modeling. EOS. 87. 15. 11 April 2006.

Crow, W.T. and Van Loon, E. The impact of incorrect model error assumptions on the sequential assimilation of remotely sensed surface soil moisture. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 8(3):421-431. 2006.

Zhan, X., Houser, P.R., Walker, J.P. and Crow, W.T. A method of retrieving high resolution soil moisture from Hydros L-band radiometer and radar observations. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 44(6):1534-1545. 2006.

Crow, W.T. A novel method for quantifying value in spaceborne soil moisture retrievals. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 8(1):56-67. 2007.

Crow, W.T. and Bolten, J.D. Estimating precipitation errors using spaceborne surface soil moisture retrievals. Geophysical Research Letters. 34. L08403. 10.1029/2007GL029450. 2007.

Crow, W.T. and Zhan, X. Continental-scale evaluation of remotely-sensed soil moisture products. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 4(3):451-455. 2007.

Sharif, H.O., Crow, W.T., Miller, N. and Wood, E.F. Multi-decadal high-resolution modeling of the Arkansas/Red River Basin. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 8(5):1111-1127. 2007.

Reichle, R.H., Crow, W.T., Koster, R. D., Sharif, H. and Mahanama, S. Contribution of soil moisture retrievals to land data assimilation products. Geophysical Research Letters. 35. L01404. 10.1029/2007GL031986. 2008.

 Crow, W.T., Kustas, W.P. and Prueger, J. Monitoring root-zone soil moisture through the assimilation of a thermal remote sensing-based soil moisture proxy into a water balance model. Remote Sensing of Environment. 112:1268-1281. 2008.

Reichle, R.H., Crow, W.T. and Keppenne, C.L. An adaptive ensemble Kalman filter for soil moisture data assimilation. Water Resources Research. 44. W03423. 10.1029/2007WR006357. 2008.

Zhan, X., Crow, W.T., Jackson, T.J. and O'Neill, P.E. Improving space-borne radiometer soil moisture retrievals with alternative aggregation rules for ancillary parameters in highly heterogeneous vegetated areas. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 5(2):261-265.  2008.

Crow, W.T. and Reichle, R.H. Comparison of adaptive filtering techniques for land surface data assimilation. Water Resources Research. 44. W08423. 10.1029/2008WR006883. 2008.

Kumar, S.V., Reichle, R.H., Peters-Lidard, C.D., Koster, R.D., Zhan, X., Crow, W.T., Eylander, J.B. and Houser, P.R. A land surface data assimilation framework using the Land Information System: Description and application. Advances in Water Resources. 31:1419-1432. 2008.

Reichle, R.H., Bosilovich, M.G., Crow, W.T., Koster, R.D., Kumar, S.V., Mahanama, S.P.P. and Zaitchik, B.F. Recent advances in land data assimilation at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Hydrologic Applications. S.K. Park (Ed.), Springer-Verlag. 407-428. 10.1007/978-3-540-71056-1. 2008.

Bolten, J., Crow, W.T., Zhan, X., Reynolds, C. and Jackson, T.J. Assimilation of a satellite-based soil moisture product in a two-layer water balance model for a global crop production decision support system. Data Assimilation for Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Hydrologic Applications. S.K. Park (Ed.), Springer-Verlag. 449-465. 10.1007/978-3-540-71056-1. 2008., W.T. and Ryu, D. A new data assimilation approach for improving runoff prediction using remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 13:1-16. 2009. 

Bindlish, R., Crow, W.T. and Jackson, T.J. The role of passive microwave remote sensing in improving flood forecasts. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 6(1):112-116. 2009.

Crow, W.T., Huffman, G.F., Bindlish, R. and Jackson, T.J. Improving satellite-based rainfall accumulation estimates using spaceborne soil moisture retrievals. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 10(1):199-212. 2009.

Ryu, D., Crow, W.T., Zhan, X. and Jackson, T.J. Correcting unintended perturbation biases in hydrologic data assimilation using Ensemble Kalman filter. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 10(3):734-750. 10.1175/2008JHM1038.1. 2009.

Kumar, S.V., Reichle, R.H., Koster, R.D., Crow, W.T. and Peters-Lidard, C.D. Role of subsurface physics in the assimilation of surface soil moisture observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 10:1534-1547. 10.1175/2009JHM1134.1. 2009.

Li, F., Crow, W.T. and Kustas, W.P Towards the estimation of root-zone soil moisture via the simultaneous assimilation of thermal and microwave soil moisture retrievals. Advances in Water Resources. 33:201-214. 10.1016/j.advwatres.2009.11.007. 2010.

Bolten, J.D., Crow, W.T., Jackson, T.J., Zhan, X. and Reynolds, C.A. Evaluating the utility of remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals for operational agricultural drought monitoring. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 3:57-66. 10.1109/JSTARS.2009.2037163. 2010.

Entekhabi, D., Njoku, E., O'Neill, P., Kellogg, K., Crow, W., Edelstein, W., Entin, J., Goodman, S., Jackson, T., Johnson, J., Kimball, J., Piepmeier, J., Koster, R., McDonald, K., Moghaddam, M., Moran, S., Reichle, R., Shi, J.C., Spencer, M., Thurman, S., Tsang, L. and Van Zyl, J. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission. Proceedings of the IEEE. 98(5):704-716. 10.1109/JPROC.2010.2043918. 2010.

Crow, W.T., Miralles, D.G. and Cosh, M.H. A quasi-global evaluation system for satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 48(6):2516-2527. 10.1109/IGARSS.2008.4779051. June 2010. 

Crow, W.T., Wagner, W. and Naeimi, V. The impact of radar incidence angle on soil moisture retrieval skill. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 7(3):501-505. 10.1109/LGRS.2010.2040134. 2010. 

Entekhabi, D., Reichle, R.H., Koster, R.D. and Crow, W.T. Performance metrics for soil moisture retrievals and applications requirements. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 11(3):832-840. 10.1175/2010JHM1223.1. 2010. 

Crow, W.T. and van den Berg, M.J. An improved approach for estimating observation and model error parameters for soil moisture data assimilation. Water Resources Research. 46. W12519. 10.1029/2010WR009402. 2010.

Miralles, D.G., Crow, W.T. and Cosh, M.H. Estimating spatial sampling errors in coarse-scale soil moisture estimates derived from point-scale observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 11(6):1404-1410. 10.1175/2010JHM1285.1. 2010.

Chen, F., Crow, W.T., Starks, P.J. and Moriasi, D.N. Improving hydrologic predictions of a catchment model via assimilation of surface soil moisture. Advances in Water Resources. 34(4):526-536. 2011.

Crow, W.T., van Den Berg, M.J., Huffman, G.F. and Pellarin, T. Correcting rainfall using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals: The soil moisture analysis rainfall tool (SMART). Water Resources Research. 47. W08521. 10.1029/2011WR010576. 2011.

Qing, L., Reichle, R., Bindlish, R., Cosh, M.H., Crow, W.T., de Jeu, R., de Lannoy, G., Huffman, G.J. and Jackson, T.J. The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to the skill of soil moisture estimates in a land data assimilation system. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 12(5):750-765. 10.1175/JHM-D-10-05000.1. 2011.

Hain, C.R., Crow, W.T., Mecikalski, J.R., Anderson, M.C. and Holmes, T. An intercomparison of available soil moisture estimates from thermal-infrared and passive microwave remote sensing and land-surface modeling. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 116. D15107. 10.1029/2011JD015633. 2011.

Parinussa, R., Holmes, T. and Crow, W.T. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations. Hydrology and Earth Systems Sciences. 15:3135-3151. 10.5194/hess-15-3135-2011. 2011.

Crow, W.T., Berg, A.A., Cosh, M.H., Loew, A., Mohanty, B.P., Panciera, R., de Rosnay, P., Ryu, D. and Walker, J.P. Upscaling sparse ground-based soil moisture observations for the validation of coarse-resolution satellite soil moisture products. Reviews of Geophysics. 50, RG2002, 10.1029/2011RG000372. 2012.

Nearing, G.S., Crow, W.T., Thorp, K.R., Moran, M.S., Riechle, R.H. and Gupta, H.V. Assimilating remote sensing observations of leaf area index and soil moisture for wheat yield estimates: An observing system simulation experiment. Water Resources Research. 48. W05525. 10.1029/2011WR011420. 2012.

Crow, W.T. Estimating model and observation error covariance information for land data assimilation systems. In Land Surface Observation, Modeling and Data Assimilation. S. Liang (Ed.). Springer-Verlag. 2012.

Crow, W.T., Kumar, S.V. and Bolten, J.D. On the utility of land surface models for agricultural drought monitoring. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 16:3451-3460. 10.5194/hess-16-3451-2012. 2012.

Bolten, J.D. and Crow, W.T. Improved prediction of quasi-global vegetation conditions using remotely-sensed surface soil moisture. Geophysical Research Letters. 39. L19406. 10.1029/2012GL053470. 2012.

Yilmaz, M.T., Crow, W.T., Anderson, M.C. and Hain, C. An objective methodology for merging satellite and model-based soil moisture products. Water Resources Research, 48. W11502. 10.1029/2011WR011682. 2012.

Hain, C.R., Crow, W.T., Anderson, M.C. and Mecikalski, J.R. An EnKF dual assimilation of thermal-infrared and microwave satellite observations of soil moisture into the Noah land surface model. Water Resources Research. 48. W11517. 10.1029/2011WR011268. 2012.

Yilmaz, M.T. and Crow, W.T. The optimality of potential rescaling approaches in land data assimilation. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 14:650-660. 10.1175/JHMD12052.1. 2013.

Chen, F., Crow, W.T. and Holmes, T. Improving long-term, retrospective precipitation datasets using satellite-based surface soil moisture retrievals and the Soil Moisture Analysis Rainfall Tool (SMART). Journal of Applied Remote Sensing. 6(1). 063604. 10.1117/1.JRS.6.063604. 2013.

Holmes, T., Crow, W.T., Yilmaz, M.T., Jackson, T.J. and Basara, J.B. Enhancing model-based land surface temperature estimates using multi-platform microwave observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 11:577-591. 10.1002/jgrd.50113. 2013.

Holmes, T., Crow, W.T. and Hain, C.R. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle. Hydrology and Earth Systems Science. 17:3695-3706. 10.5194/hess-17-3695-2013. 2013.

Nearing, G.S., Gupta, H.V., Crow, W.T. and Gong, W. An approach to quantifying the efficiency of a Bayesian filter, Water Resources Research. 49(4): 2164-2173. 10.1002/wrcr.20177. 2013.

Nearing, G.S., Gupta, H.V. and Crow, W.T. Information loss in approximately Bayesian estimation techniques: A comparison of generative and discriminative approaches to estimating agricultural productivity. Journal of Hydrology. 507:163-173. 2013.

Crow, W.T. and Yilmaz, M.T. The Auto-Tuned Land Assimilation System (ATLAS). Water Resources Research, 50(1):371-384. 10.1002/2013WR0145502014. 2014. 

Bruscantini, C., Perna, P., Ferrazzoli, P., Grings, F., Karszenbaum, H. and Crow, W.T. Effect of forward/inverse model asymmetries over retrieved soil moisture assessed with an OSSE for the Aquarius/SAC-D. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 7(3):943-949. 10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2265076. 2014.

Bruscantini, C., Crow, W.T., Grings, F., Maas, M. and Karszenbaum, H. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for the Aquarius/SAC-D soil moisture product. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 52(10):6086-6094. 10.1109/TGARS.2013.2294915. 2014.

Han, E., Crow, W.T., Holmes, T. and Bolten, J.D. Benchmarking a soil moisture data assimilation system for agricultural drought monitoring. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 15:1117-1134. 10.1175/JHM-D-13-0125.1. 2014.

Yilmaz, M.T., Anderson, M.C., Zaitchik, B., Hain, C.R., Crow, W.T., Ozdogan, M., Chun, J.A. and Evans, J. Comparison of prognostic and diagnostic surface flux modeling approaches over the Nile River Basin. Water Resources Research. 50(1):386-408. 10.1002/2013WR014194. 2014.

Yilmaz, M.T. and Crow, W.T. Evaluation of assumptions in soil moisture triple collocation analysis. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 15:1293-1302. 10.1175/JHM-D-0158.1. 2014.

Su. C., Ryu, D., Crow, W.T. and Western, A.W. Beyond triple collocation: Applications to satellite soil moisture. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 119(11):6419-6439. 10.1002/2013JD021043. 2014.

Qiu, J., Crow, W.T., Nearing, G.S., Mo, X. and Liu, S. The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture times series data. Geophysical Research Letters. 41(14):4997-5004. 10.1002/2014GL060017. 2014.

Qiu, J., Crow, W.T., Mo, X. and Liu, S. Impact of temporal autocorrelation mismatch on the assimilation of satellite-derived surface soil moisture retrievals. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 7(8):3534-3542. 10.1109/JSTARS.2014.2349354. 2014.

Chen, F., Crow, W.T. and Ryu, D. Dual forcing and state correction via soil moisture assimilation for improved rainfall-runoff modeling. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 15(5):1832-1848. 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0002.1. 2014.

Holmes, T.H., Crow, W.T. and de Jeu, R. Leveraging microwave polarization information for the calibration of a land data assimilation system. Geophysical Research Letters. 41(24):8878-8886. 10.1002/2014GL061991. 2014.

Su, C-.H., Ryu, D., Crow, W.T. and Western, A.W. Stand-alone error characterisation of microwave satellite soil moisture using a Fourier method. Remote Sensing of Environment. 154:115-126. 10.1016/j.rse.2014.08.014. 2014.

Alvarez-Garreton, C, Ryu, D., Western, A.W., Crow, W.T. and Robertson, D.E. The impacts of assimilating satellite soil moisture into a rainfall-runoff model in a semi-arid catchment. Journal of Hydrology. 519(D):2763-2774. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.041. 2014.

Li, Y., Ryu, D., Western, A.W., Wang, Q.J., Roberson, D.E. and Crow, W.T. An integrated error parameter estimation and lag-aware data assimilation scheme for real-time flood forecasting, Journal of Hydrology. 519(D): 2722-2736. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.08.009. 2015.

Holmes, T.H., Crow, W.T., Hain, C., Anderson, M.C. and Kustas, W.P. Diurnal temperature cycle as observed by thermal infrared and microwave radiometers. Remote Sensing of Environment. 158:110-125. 10.1016/j.rse.2014.10.031. 2015.

Hain, C.R., Crow, W.T., Anderson, M.C. and Yilmaz, M.T. Diagnosing neglected soil moisture source/sink processes via a thermal infrared-based two-source energy balance model. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 16:1070-1086. 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0017.1. 2015.

Han, E., Crow, W.T., Hain, C.R. and Anderson, M.C. On the use of a water balance to evaluate inter-annual terrestrial ET variability. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 16:1102-1108. 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0175.1. 2015.

Alvarez-Garreton, C., Ryu, D., Western, A.W., Su, C.-H., Crow, W.T., Robertson, D.E. and Leahy, C. Improving operational flood ensemble prediction by the assimilation of satellite soil moisture: Comparison between lumped and semi-distributed models. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 19. 10.5194/hess-19-1659-20151659-1676. 2015.

Gruber, A. and Crow, W.T. The potential of 2D Kalman filtering for soil moisture data assimilation, Remote Sensing of Environment. 171:137-148. 10.1016/j.rse.2015.10.019. 2015.

Wardlow, B., M. Anderson, Tadesse, T., Hain, C., Crow, W.T. and Rodell, M. Remote Sensing of Drought: Emergence of a Satellite-Based Monitoring Toolkit for the United States. Remote Sensing Handbook. P. Thenkabail (Ed.). CRC Press. 2015.

Crow, W.T., F. Lei, Hain, C., Anderson, M.C., Scott, R.L., Billesbach, D. and Arkebauer, T. Robust estimates of soil moisture and latent heat flux coupling strength obtained from triple collocation. Geophysical Research Letters. 42:8415-8423. 10.1002/2015GL065929. 2015.

Lu, H., Crow, W.T., Zhu, Y. and Sun, J. The impact of assumed error variances on surface soil moisture and snow depth hydrologic data assimilation. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 8(11):5116-5129. 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2487740. 2015.

Lei, F., Crow, W.T., Shen, H., Parinussa, R.M. and Holmes, T.H. The impact of local acquisition time on the accuracy of microwave surface soil moisture retrievals over the contiguous United States. Remote Sensing. 7(10):13448-13465. 10.3390/rs71013448. 2015.

Hashemian, M., Ryu, D., Crow, W.T. and Kustas, W.P. Improving root-zone soil moisture estimations using dynamic root growth and crop phenology. Advances in Water Resources. 86(A):170-183. 10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.10.001. 2015.

Pan, M., Fisher, C.K., Chaney, N.W., Zhan W., Crow, W.T., Aires, F., Entekhabi, D. and Wood, E.F. Triple collocation: Beyond three estimates and separation of structural/non-structural errors. Remote Sensing of Environment. 171:299-310. 10.1016/j.rse.2015.10.028. 2015.

Gruber, A., Su, C.-H., Zwieback, S., Crow, W.T., Dorigo, W. and Wagner, W. Recent advances in (soil moisture) triple collocation analysis. Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 45(B):200-211. 10.1016/j.jag.2015.09.002. 2016.

Gruber, A., Su, C.-H., Crow, W.T., Zwieback, S., Dorigo, W.A. and Wagner, W. Estimating error cross-correlations in soil moisture data sets using extended collocation analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 121:1208-1219. 10.1002/2015JD024027. 2016.

Su, C.-H., Zhang, J., Gruber, A., Parinussa, R., Ryu, D., Crow, W.T. and Wagner, W. Error decomposition of nine passive and active microwave satellite soil moisture data sets over Australia. Remote Sensing of Environment. 182:128-140. 10.1016/j.rse.2016.05.008. 2016.

Coopersmith, E.J., Cosh, M.H., Bell, J.E. and Crow, W.T. Multi-profile analysis of soil moisture within the Climate Reference Network. Vadose Zone Journal. 15(1):10.2136/vzj2015.01.0016. 2016.

Crow, W.T., Su, C-.H., Ryu, D. and Yilmaz, M.T. Optimal averaging of soil moisture predictions from ensemble land surface model simulations. Water Resources Research. 182:126-140. 10.1002/2015WR016944. 2016.

Brocca, L., Pellarin, T., Crow, W.T., Ciabatta, L., Massari, C., Ryu, D., Su, C.-H., Rüdiger, C. and Kerr, Y. Rainfall estimation by inverting SMOS soil moisture estimates: A comparison of different methods over Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres. 121:12,062–12,079. 10.1002/2016JD025382. 2016.

Tao, J., Wu, D., Gourley, J., Zhang, S.Q., Crow, W.T., Peters-Lidard, C. and Barros, A.P. Operational hydrological forecasting during the IPHEx-IOP campaign - Meet the challenge. Journal of Hydrology. 541(A):434–456. 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.02.019. 2016.

Lu, H., Crow, W.T., Zhu, Y., Ouyang, F. and Jianbin, S. Improving streamflow prediction using remotely-sensed soil moisture and snow depth. Remote Sensing. 8:503. 10.3390/rs8060503. 2016.

Chen, F., Crow, W.T., Colliander, A., Cosh, M.H., Jackson, T.J., Bindlish, R., Reichle, R.H., Chan, S.K., Bosch, D.D., Starks, P.J. and Goodrich, D.C. Application of triple collocation in ground-based validation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) level 2 data products. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 99:1-14. 10.1109/JSTARS.2016.2569998. 2016.

Alvarez-Garreton, C., Ryu, D., Western, A.W., Crow, W.T., Su, C.-H. and Robertson, D.E. Dual assimilation of satellite soil moisture to improve streamflow prediction in data-scarce catchments. Water Resources Research. 52:5357–5375. 10.1002/2015WR018429. 2016.

Holmes, T.H., Hain, C.R., Anderson, M.C. and Crow, W.T. Cloud tolerance of remote sensing technologies to measure land surface temperature. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 20:3263-3275. 10.5194/hess-20-3263-2016. 2016.

Yilmaz, M.T., Crow, W.T. and Ryu, D. Impact of model relative accuracy in framework of rescaling observations in hydrological data assimilation studies. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 17:2245–2257. 10.1175/JHM-D-15-0206.1. 2016.

Qiu, J., Crow, W.T. and Nearing, G.S. The impact of vertical measurement depth on the information content of soil moisture for latent heat flux estimation. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 17:2419–2430. 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0044.1. 2016.

Koster, R.D., Brocca, L., Crow, W.T., Burgin, M.S. and De Lannoy, G.J.M. Precipitation estimation using L-band and C-band soil moisture retrievals. Water Resources Research. 52:7213–7225. 10.1002/2016WR019024. 2016.

Chan, S. et al. Assessment of the SMAP level 2 passive soil moisture product. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 54(8):4994-5007. 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2561938. 2016.

Mladenova, I.E., Bolten, J.D., Crow, W.T., Anderson, M.C., Hain, C.R., Johnson, D.M. and Mueller, R. Inter-comparison of soil moisture, evaporative stress and vegetation indices for estimating corn and soybean yields over the U.S. Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 10(4):1328-1343. 10.1109/JSTARS.2016.2639338. 2017.

Parinussa, R.M., de Jeu, R.A.M., van der Schalie, R., Crow, W.T., Lei, F. and Holmes, T.H. A quasi-global approach to improve day-time satellite surface soil moisture anomalies through the land surface temperature input. Climate. 4(4): 50. 10.3390/cli4040050. 2017.

Brocca, L., Crow, W.T., Ciabatta, L., Massari, C., de Rosnay, P., Enenkel, M., Hahn, S., Amarnath, G., Camici, S., Tarpanelli, A. and Wagner, W. A review of the applications of ASCAT soil moisture products. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 10(5):2285-2306. 10.1109/JSTARS.2017.2651140. 2017.

Crow, W.T., Han, E., Ryu, D., Hain, C.R. and Anderson, M.C. and Ryu, D. Estimating annual water storage variations in medium-scale (103 to 104 km2) basins using microwave-based soil moisture retrievals. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 21:1849-1862. 10.5194/hess-21-1849-2017. 2017.

Crow, W.T., Chen, F., Reichle, R.H., and Liu, Q. L band microwave remote sensing and land data assimilation improve the representation of prestorm soil moisture conditions for hydrologic forecasting. Geophysical Research Letters. 44. 10.1002/2017GL073642. 2017.

Cai, X., Pan, M., Chaney, N., Colliander, A., Misra, S., Cosh, M.H., Crow, W.T., Jackson, T.J., and Wood, E. Validation of SMAP soil moisture for the SMAPVEX15 field campaign using a hyper-resolution model. Water Resources Research. 53(4):3013-3028. 10.1002/2016WR019967. 2017.

Colliander, A., Cosh, M.H., Misra, S., Jackson, T.J., Crow, W.T., Chan, S., Bindlish, R., Chae, C., Holifield Collins, C., and Yueh, S. Validation and scaling of soil moisture in a semi-arid environment: SMAP Validation Experiment 2015 (SMAPVEX15). Remote Sensing of Environment. 196:101-112. 10.1016/j.rse.2017.04.022. 2017.

Yang, Y., Anderson, M., Gao, F., Hain, C., Kustas, W., Meyers, T., Crow, W.T., Finocchiaro, R., Otkin, J., Sun, L. and  Yang, Y. Impact of tile drainage on evapotranspiration in South Dakota, USA based on high spatiotemporal resolution evapotranspiration time series From a multisatellite data fusion system. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 10(6):2250-2264. 10.1109/JSTARS.2017.2680411. 2017.

Román-Cascón, C., Pellarin, T., Gibon, F., Brocca, L., Cosme, E., Crow, W.T., Fernández-Prieto, D., Y.H. Kerr, and Massari, C. Correcting satellite-based precipitation products through SMOS soil moisture data assimilation in two land-surface models of different complexity: API and SURFEX. Remote Sensing of Environment. 200:295-310. 10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.022. 2017.

Nearing, G.S., Yatheendradas, S., Crow, W.T., Bosch, D.D., Cosh, M.H., Goodrich, D.C., Seyfried, M.S., and Starks, P. Nonparametric triple collocation. Water Resources Research. 53:5516–5530. 10.1002/2017WR020359. 2017.

Tobin, K.J., Torres, R., Crow, W.T., and Bennet, M.B. Multi-decadal analysis of root-zone soil moisture applying the exponential filter across CONUS. Hydrology and Earth System Science. 21:4403-4417. 10.5194/hess-21-4403-2017. 2017.

Gruber, A. Dorigo, W., Crow, W.T., and Wagner, W. Triple collocation based merging of satellite soil moisture retrievals. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 55(12):6780-6792. 10.1109/TGRS.2017.2734070. 2017.

Reichle, R. et al. Assessment of the SMAP Level-4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product using in situ measurements. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 18(10):2621-2645. 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0063.1. 2017.

Reichle, R. et al. Global assessment of the SMAP Level-4 surface and root-zone soil moisture product using assimilation diagnostics. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 18(12):3217-3237. 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0130.1. 2017.

Massari, C., Crow, W.T., and Brocca, L. An assessment of the accuracy of global rainfall estimates without ground-based observations. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 21:4347-4361. 10.5194/hess-21-4347-2017. 2017.

Sharifi, A., Yen, H., Wallace, C.W., McCarty, G., Crow, W.T., Momen, B,. Lang, M., Sadeghi, A., Lee., S., Denver, J., and Rabenhost, M.C. Effect of water quality sampling approaches on nitrate load predictions of a prominent regression-based model. Water. 9(11):895, 10.3390/w9110895. 2017.

Wei, G., Lu, H., Crow, W.T., Zhu, Y., Su, J., and Wang, J. Evaluation of IMERG V04A precipitation estimates for three typical watersheds in China. Remote Sensing. 10:30. 10.3390/rs10010030. 2017.

Dong, J., Crow, W.T., and Bindlish, R. The error structure of the SMAP single and dual channel soil moisture retrievals. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:758-765. 10.1002/2017GL075656. 2017.

Dong, J., and Crow, W.T. An improved triple collocation analysis algorithm for decomposing auto-correlated and white soil moisture retrieval errors. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres. 122:13,081-13,094. 10.1002/2017JD027397. 2017.

Chan, S. et al. Development and assessment of the SMAP enhanced passive soil moisture product. Remote Sensing of Environment. 204:931-941. 10.1016/j.rse.2017.08.025. 2018.

Holmes, T.H., Hain, C., Crow, W.T., Anderson, M., and Kustas, W. Microwave implementation of two-source energy balance approach for estimating evapotranspiration. Hydrologic and Earth System Sciences. 22:1351-1369. 10.5194/hess-22-1351-2018. 2018.

Lei, F., Crow, W.T., Shen, H., Su, C.-H., Holmes, T., Parinussa, R., and Wang, G. Assessment of the impact of spatial heterogeneity on microwave satellite soil moisture periodic error. Remote Sensing of Environment. 205:85-99. 10.106/j.rse.2017.11.002. 2018.

Das, N. et al. The SMAP mission combined active-passive soil moisture product at 9 km and 3 km spatial resolutions. Remote Sensing of Environment. 211:204-217. 10.106/j.rse.2018.04.11. 2018.

Gruber, A., Crow, W.T., and Dorigo, W. Assimilation of spatially sparse in situ soil moisture networks into a continuous model domain. Water Resources Research. 54:1353-1367. 10.1002/2017WR021277. 2018.

Crow, W.T., Chen, F., Reichle, R. Xia, Y., and Liu, Q. Exploiting soil moisture, precipitation and streamflow observations to evaluate soil moisture/runoff coupling in land surface models. Geophysical Research Letters. 45(10):4869-4878. 10.1029/2018GL077193. 2018.

Chen, F., Crow, W.T., Bindlish, R., Colliander, A., Burgin, M.S., Asanuma, J., and Aida, K. Global-scale evaluation of SMAP, SMOS and ASCAT soil moisture products using triple collocation. Remote Sensing of Environment. 214:1-13. 10.1016/j.rse.2018.05.008. 2018.

Koster, K.D., Crow, W.T., Reichle, R.H., and Mahanama, S.P. Estimating basin‐scale water budgets with SMAP soil moisture data. Water Resources Research. 54. 10.1029/2018WR022669. 2018.

Nearing, G., Yatheendradas, S., Crow, W.T., Chen, F., and Zhan, X. The efficiency of data assimilation. Water Resources Research. in press. 2018.

Dong, J., and Crow, W.T. The added value of assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture for estimating summertime soil moisture - air temperature coupling strength. Water Resources Research. in press. 2018.