Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/2/1999
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Lipids are important bread components that significantly affect loaf characteristics. Polar and non-polar lipids are known to affect loaf characteristics in different ways. Oat oil has a high content of polar lipids. The objective of this project was to test the application of oat oil in bread baking, observing effects of polar and non-polar lipids on loaf volume and texture. Oat oil was fractionated into polar and non-polar fractions by water-degumming. Different fractions of oat oil and vegetable shortening (control) were added to a bread formula at varying concentrations. Loaf volume and physical characteristics were determined after baking. Crude oat oil and shortening both increased loaf volume by about 11% over the zero lipid formulation, when added at a 3% level. The polar lipid fraction increased loaf volume by nearly the same amount when added at only a 0.5% level. The non-polar oat oil fraction had little effect on loaf volume. Physical loaf characteristics were similar for all treatments except for crumb color which scored lower for bread with any oat oil fraction. The positive effect of the polar lipid fraction was attributed to either the anphiphilic nature of polar lipids that gives them the surfactant activity required to stabilize the foam-like structure formed in bread, or to their ability to interact with gluten proteins to produce a stronger dough. The results obtained open the possibility for using oat oil or its polar fraction in bread making.