Skip to main content
ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Animal Disease Center » Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #405878

Research Project: Development of Improved Diagnostic and Control Strategies for Brucellosis in Livestock and Wildlife

Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases Research

Title: Response to bovine viral diarrhea virus in heifers vaccinated with a combination of multivalent modified live and inactivated viral vaccines

item FALKENBERG, SHOLLIE - Auburn University
item Dassanayake, Rohana
item CRAWFORD, LAUREN - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Sarlo Davila, Kaitlyn
item Boggiatto, Paola

Submitted to: Viruses
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/3/2023
Publication Date: 3/8/2023
Citation: Falkenberg, S.M., Dassanayake, R.P., Crawford, L., Sarlo Davila, K.M., Boggiatto, P.M. 2023. Response to bovine viral diarrhea virus in heifers vaccinated with a combination of multivalent modified live and inactivated viral vaccines. Viruses. 15(3). Article 703..

Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral vaccines, as either live or killed formulations, are widely used in the field. Moreover, they are often used in combination by vaccinating with one type and then re-vaccinating with the other. However, despite various reports that certain combinations are better than others, very few studies have actually evaluated how vaccinations with these different vaccines impacts the ability of the animal to respond to subsequent re-vaccination with the other type. The work presented here provides a through analysis of the immune response of cattle following vaccination with a live or killed vaccine, followed by re-vaccination with the reciprocal. The information presented here will be of interest to researchers, veterinarians and producers interested in developing and improving upon vaccination regimens against bovine viral vaccines.

Technical Abstract: Bovine viral vaccines contain both live or inactivated formulations, but few studies have evaluated the impact of vaccinating with either live or killed antigens and re-vaccinating with the reciprocal. Commercial dairy heifers were utilized for the study and randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group A received a commercially available modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV and were revaccinated with a commercially available killed viral (KV) vaccine containing BVDV. Group B received the same KV vaccine and were revaccinated with the same MLV vaccine, and Group C served as negative controls and did not receive any viral vaccines. Heifers in Group B had higher virus neutralizing titers (VNT) at the end of the vaccination period than heifers in Group’s A and C. Frequency of IFN-' mRNA positive CD4+, CD8+, and CD335+ populations, as well as increased mean fluorescent intensity of CD25+ cells was increased for the Group A heifers as compared to Group’s B and C. Data from this study would suggest that differences in initial antigen presentation such as live versus killed could augment CMI and humoral responses and would be useful in determining optimal vaccination programs for optimizing protective responses which is critical for promoting lifetime immunity.