Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/26/2023
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Bird flu is a serious disease for many types of birds including poultry and wild waterfowl. The disease is caused by a virus. Infected animals can excrete the virus into their environments. Understanding how long the virus can survive in different materials helps ensure proper sanitation after infection occurs at a farm. Some materials cannot be easily treated with disinfectants, so environmental factors like temperature and humidity can be used to predict the rate of virus decay in different materials. This article compiles the available literature on how long the virus that causes bird flu can remain infectious in materials found on poultry farms: litter, bedding, soil, eggs, manure, water, feathers, and feed. High temperatures are the primary factor in accelerating virus inactivation.
Technical Abstract: Avian influenza virus (AIV) is widespread among poultry and wild waterfowl. The severity of the disease is variable, and the highly pathogenic form can rapidly kill numerous avian species. Understanding the stability of AIV infectivity in different substrates is critical to developing processes to effectively decontaminate or safely dispose of potentially contaminated material. This review aims to compile the current information on the stability of AIV in materials from poultry farms that cannot be disinfected with chemicals or fumigants: water, litter/bedding, soil, feed, feathers, carcasses/meat, and eggs. There are still important gaps in the data, but available data will inform risk assessments, biosecurity, and procedures to dispose of potentially contaminated material. Among the parameters and conditions reported, temperature is a nearly universal factor, where regardless of substrate, the virus will inactivate faster under a given set of conditions as the temperature increases, and freeze-thaw cycles can facilitate virus inactivation.