Location: Meat Safety and QualityTitle: Influence of aging temperature and duration on descriptive sensory attributes, consumer liking, and the volatile flavor profile of vacuum-packaged beef longissimus
|HERNANDEZ, M SEBASTIAN - Texas Tech University|
|WOERNER, DALE - Texas Tech University|
|BROOKS, J CHANCE - Texas Tech University|
|LEGAKO, JERRAD - Texas Tech University|
Submitted to: Meat and Muscle Biology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/23/2023
Publication Date: 5/20/2023
Citation: Hernandez, M., Woerner, D.R., Brooks, J., Wheeler, T.L., Legako, J.F. 2023. Influence of aging temperature and duration on descriptive sensory attributes, consumer liking, and the volatile flavor profile of vacuum-packaged beef longissimus. Meat and Muscle Biology. 7(1). Article 15710. http://doi.org/10.22175/mmb.15710.
Interpretive Summary: Storing meat at refrigerated temperatures is common in the beef industry to enhance beef eating quality, primarily tenderness and flavor. Enzymes in the meat degrade the structural proteins increasing tenderness and developing flavor compounds. However, excessive storage time is expensive and beef flavor can deteriorate if stored too long. The length of time and the temperature of the storage affects these important traits, but the optimal combination has not been fully studied. This study evaluated the impact of three storage temperatures and four storage times on important meat tenderness and flavor traits. Flavor was impacted by compounds associated with microbial growth which increased during storage but was dependent on storage temperature. These results imply that processors and retailers should consider minimum aging durations within colder storage regiments to ensure palatability. Conversely, when relatively warmer storage temperatures are utilized processors and retailers should consider maximum aging durations in order to optimize eating quality traits.
Technical Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of beef wet aging temperature and duration on beef palatability. Paired strip loins were collected from USDA Choice beef carcasses at commercial beef processing facility (n = 60). Carcasses and corresponding paired strip loins were assigned to a storage temperature (-2', 0', or 4'). Strip loins were portioned into half loins and further assigned to an aging duration (14, 28, 42, or 56 d). Loins were aged in commercial upright refrigerators. After aging, loins were fabricated into 2.54 cm steaks and assigned to either volatile compound analysis, descriptive sensory analysis, or consumer sensory analysis. Steaks were cooked to reach an internal temperature of 71'. Data were analyzed as a split-plot where carcass served as the whole plot and loin portion served as the sub-plot. An alpha of P < 0.05 was used. For descriptive sensory analysis, an interaction was observed for beef identity, bloody/serumy, fat-like, liver-like, bitter, sour, and musty/earthy (P < 0.05). Loins aged for 56 d at 4' were the most intense for liver-like, sour, and musty/earthy notes compared to all other treatments (P < 0.05). For consumer sensory analysis, an interaction was observed for juiciness, tenderness, and overall liking (P < 0.05). Steaks from loins aged for 14 d at -2' were the rated the least for juiciness, tenderness, and overall liking (P < 0.05). Ethanol, acetic acid, 1-penten-3-ol, and 2-methylbutanal concentrations were the greatest in loins aged for 56 d (P < 0.05). Aging at 4' produced the greatest concentrations of ethanol and heptanoic acid (P < 0.05). Off-flavor development increased during extended aging but was dependent on storage temperature. Extended aging conducted at colder temperatures did not negatively influence palatability. Aging for 14 d at -2' was detrimental to consumer liking. It may be concluded that both aging temperature and duration should be considered when seeking to optimize beef palatability.