Location: Plant, Soil and Nutrition ResearchTitle: Extrusion and drying temperatures enhance sensory profile and iron bioavailability of dry bean pasta
|HOOPER, SHARON - Michigan State University|
|BASSET, AMBER - Michigan State University|
Submitted to: Food Chemistry Advances
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/17/2023
Publication Date: 8/19/2023
Citation: Hooper, S.D., Basset, A., Wiesinger, J.A., Glahn, R.P., Cichy, K.A. 2023. Extrusion and drying temperatures enhance sensory profile and iron bioavailability of dry bean pasta. Food Chemistry Advances. (3):100422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.focha.2023.100422.
Interpretive Summary: Dry beans play an important role in the diet of many people worldwide as they are rich in protein, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to the appeal of beans nutritional value, flour made from dry beans is gradually gaining traction as an ingredient for numerous food products. One such product is pasta, which is versatile, convenient, and easy for home consumers to prepare. Although pastas are traditionally made from durum wheat semolina, several studies have shown that partially or totally replacing durum wheat with flour from other sources such as corn, quinoa, cassava, and pulses improves their nutritive quality. Given the nutritional benefits of pastas made with bean flours, the present study seeks to determine the impact of high and/or low extrusion and drying temperatures on quality attributes iron bioavailability and of dry bean and semolina pastas. Such knowledge is essential as it can have major impact on consumer acceptance of this food product. Cooking quality traits of dry bean and semolina pastas were significantly influenced by the extrusion and drying temperatures. Extruding bean flours into pastas at high temperature were superior to low temperature extruded pastas. In general, semolina pastas yielded better cooking characteristics than dry bean pastas. Similarly, pasta acceptability was impacted by extrusion and drying temperatures. Bean pastas that were extruded and dried at high temperatures (100 °C and 90 °C) were more acceptable to panelists in terms of appearance, flavor and texture. Varietal differences in iron bioavailability were identified and high extrusion and drying temperatures increased iron bioavailability. Given the relatively equal acceptance scores of white and yellow bean pastas, and the corresponding high Fe bioavailability ratings, the results indicate that the white kidney and yellow dry bean pastas represent an excellent food product to deliver bioavailable iron.
Technical Abstract: Dry bean flour is a highly nutritive, plant-based ingredient with the potential for great utility in many food products. Heat treated bean flours were produced from commercial varieties of white kidney, yellow and black beans, then processed into pastas using high\low extrusion and drying temperatures. Bean pastas made with high extrusion\high drying temperature (H\H) had more favorable sensory attributes and better texture as compared to those made with high extrusion\low drying temperature (H\L). Whereas bean pastas made with low extrusion\low drying temperature (L\L) were unacceptable. Additionally, H\H pastas favored longer cooking time (8.6 – 13.8 min.) versus those extruded at lower temperature (5.0 – 5.7min.) but quicker than H\H) semolina (15.1 – 18.0 min.) Water uptake was significantly greater for high temperature extruded pastas when compared to their lower temperature extruded counterparts. Iron bioavailability of dry bean pastas was strongly affected by high extrusion temperature. High extrusion temperature (100 °C) with high (90 °C) drying temperature improved iron bioavailability from yellow and white kidney pastas, 12.7 and 15 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively as compared to black bean pasta (0.9 ng ferritin/mg protein). Black bean pastas iron bioavailability was not influenced by extrusion or dry temperatures. Extrusion and drying temperatures are critical parameters in the production of high protein and bioavailable iron gluten free bean pastas.