Location: Commodity Utilization ResearchTitle: Chemical and microbial characterization of sugarcane mill mud for soil applications
|HAY, ANTHONY - Cornell University
|LEBLANC, JEFFREY - Higginbotham Farm Inc
Submitted to: PLOS ONE
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/3/2022
Publication Date: 8/16/2022
Citation: Uchimiya, M., Hay, A.G., LeBlanc, J. 2022. Chemical and microbial characterization of sugarcane mill mud for soil applications. PLoS ONE. 17(8). Article e027013. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0272013.
Interpretive Summary: Raw sugar production in Southern U.S. generates organic wastes, including sugarcane mill mud. This paper tested chemistry and biology of sugarcane mill mud. The goal was to measure values of mill mud as organic fertilizer. Results showed rich nutrient values and useful microbiota in mill mud. Detailed discussion is provided to guide how and when mill mud should be considered useful as the organic fertilizer.
Technical Abstract: Sugarcane mill mud/filter cake is an activated sludge-like byproduct from the clarifier of a raw sugar production factory, where cane juice is heated to '90 °C for 1-2 hr, after the removal of bagasse. Mill mud is enriched with organic carbon, nitrogen, and nutrient minerals; no prior report utilized 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the microbial composition. Mill mud could be applied to agricultural fields as biofertilizer to replace or supplement chemical fertilizers, and as bio-stimulant to replenish microorganisms and organic carbon depleted by erosion and post-harvest field burning. However, mill mud has historically caused waste management challenges in the United States. This study reports on the chemical and microbial (16S rRNA) characteristics for mill muds of diverse origin and ages. Chemical signature (high phosphorus) distinguished mill mud from bagasse (high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio) and soil (high pH) samples of diverse geographical/environmental origins. Bacterial alpha diversity of all sample types (mill mud, bagasse, and soil) was inversely correlated with C/N. Firmicutes dominated the microbial composition of fresh byproducts (mill mud and bagasse) as-produced within the operating factory. Upon aging and environmental exposure, the microbial community of the byproducts diversified to resemble that of soils, and became dominated by varying proportions of other phyla such as Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomyces. In summary, chemical properties allowed grouping of sample types (mill mud, bagasse, and soil-like), and microbial diversity analyses visualized aging caused by outdoor exposures including soil amendment and composting. Results suggest that a transient turnover of microbiome by amendments shifts towards more resilient population governed by the chemistry of bulk soil.