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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Ames, Iowa » National Laboratory for Agriculture and The Environment » Agroecosystems Management Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #390442

Research Project: Reducing Production Losses due to Oxidative Stress and Bacterial Pathogens in Swine

Location: Agroecosystems Management Research

Title: Effects of dietary protein level on intestinal function and inflammation in growing pigs

item Pearce, Sarah
item NISLEY, MITCHELL - Iowa State University
item GABLER, NICHOLAS - Iowa State University
item SPARKS, CHRIS - Huvepharma Inc

Submitted to: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/15/2022
Publication Date: 5/20/2022
Citation: Pearce, S.C., Nisley, M., Gabler, N.K., Sparks, C. 2022. Effects of dietary protein level on intestinal function and inflammation in growing pigs [abstract]. International Symposium on Digestive Physiology in Pigs.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: In early weaned pigs, diets high in crude protein (CP) are known to increase in the incidence of diarrhea, hind gut protein fermentation, and compromise intestinal function and integrity. The objectives of the current experiment were to evaluate the impact of low versus high dietary CP when fed to nursery pigs on markers of intestinal inflammation, function, and integrity. Gilts (n=6/treatment) were randomly assigned to one of two diets regimens and fed for 21 d, in 2 phases consisting of 10 and 11 days, respectively. Diets were a low CP (LCP) or high CP (HCP) diet fed during Phase 1, 17% versus 24% CP, and Phase 2, 17.5% versus 23.7% CP, respectively. At 21-days of feeding, pigs were euthanized and ileal and colonic ex vivo intestinal barrier integrity, ileal nutrient transport, tissue inflammation, and fecal dry matter variables were assessed. There were no differences in colonic epithelial barrier function as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and 4 kDa FITC-dextran flux between the CP treatments (P > 0.05). Although colon IL-1A, IL-1B, IL-1ra, IL-2 IL-4, IL-6 and IL-12 did not differ due to dietary treatment, colonic tissue concentrations of IL-8 and IL-18 were higher in pigs fed the HCP versus the LCP diet (P < 0.05). There were no differences in fecal dry matter concentration (P > 0.05) between treatments at day 10 or 21. Ileum TER tended (P = 0.06) to be higher in HCP-fed pigs, suggesting a more robust barrier. However, 4 kDa FITC-dextran flux was not different between treatments. Interestingly, active glucose and glutamine transport were decreased in HCP-fed versus LCP-fed pigs (P < 0.05). There were also no dietary impacts on ileal cytokine concentrations (P > 0.05). Taken together, this data shows that feeding pigs fed low crude protein diets do not negatively impact colonic barrier function, fecal dry matter, or inflammation. In contrast, ileal barrier function and nutrient transport were altered, suggesting a regional effect of diet.