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Research Project: Biobased Pesticide Discovery and Product Optimization and Enhancement from Medicinal and Aromatic Crops

Location: Natural Products Utilization Research

Title: Phenolic contents, chemical profiling, in silico and in vitro antiinflammatory and anticancer properties of Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl

item SHAUKAT, UMER - Islamia University Of Bahawalpur
item AHEMAD, SAEED - Islamia University Of Bahawalpur
item Wang, Mei
item KHAN, SHABANA - University Of Mississippi
item ALI, ZULFIQAR - University Of Mississippi
item MUHAMMAD I, TOUSIF - University Of Education Lahore
item ABDALLAH, HASSAN - Salahaddin University-Erbil
item KHAN, IKHLAS - University Of Mississippi
item SALEEM, MUHAMMAD - Islamia University Of Bahawalpur
item MAHOMOODALLY, MOHAMAD - Ton Duc Thang University

Submitted to: South African Journal of Botany
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/15/2020
Publication Date: 1/9/2021
Citation: Shaukat, U., Ahemad, S., Wang, M., Khan, S.I., Ali, Z., Muhammad I, T.I., Abdallah, H.H., Khan, I.A., Saleem, M., Mahomoodally, M.F. 2021. Phenolic contents, chemical profiling, in silico and in vitro antiinflammatory and anticancer properties of Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. South African Journal of Botany. 138:148-155.

Interpretive Summary: The utilization of herbal medicine for curing and/or management of various diseases is still a promising research avenue. The genus Alnus, in the family Betulaceae, consists of deciduous shrubs and trees. Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl (syn. Clethropsis nitida Spach.), is a deciduous woody tree distributed in the mountain range of Hindukush. The stem, bark, and leave paste of this plant species is applied externally to reduce the swelling, pain and to cure boils based on traditional uses with limited phytochemical reports. The present study was planned to investigate the phytochemical composition and evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potential of A. nitida. Cytotoxic potential against four cancer cell lines (SK-MEL, KB, BT-549, SK-OV-3) and two non-cancerous kidney cell lines (LLC-PK1 and Vero) and anti-inflammatory response towards iNOS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced macrophages were evaluated in order to establish a scientific rationale for future research and its applications as a novel and functional pharmaceutical/medicinal ingredient.

Technical Abstract: Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl has been used as a remedy for inflammation-related disorders in the folk medicinal system by the inhabitants of the northern areas of Pakistan. This study deals with the phytochemical composition, cytotoxicity, and anti-inflammatory activity of various extracts of A. nitida. The phytochemical composition was established by measuring total phenolic contents through spectrophotometrically and chemical profiling was done by GC-MS analysis. Cytotoxicity was tested against four cancer cell lines (SK-MEL-28, KB, BT-549, and SK-OV-3) and two noncancerous kidney cell lines (LLC-PK1 and Vero). The hexanes extract showed promising activity against SK-MEL-28, BT-549, SK-OV-3 and LLC-PK1 cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 13-78 mg/mL and hydro-methanol extract inhibited the growth of KB, BT-549, and SK-OV-3 with IC50 values ranging from 25-42 mg/mL. The hydro-methanol, hexanes, and chloroform extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting iNOS in LPS-induced macrophages with IC50 values of 69, 60, and 88 mg/mL, respectively. Besides, palmitic acid and parthenolide were theoretically docked against iNOS synthase. Parthenolide showed higher inhibition affinity (- 6.16 kcal/mol, Ki = 30.63 mM) in comparison to the control ligand (- 5.28 kcal/mol, Ki = 135.78 mM). This study showed that the A. nitida extracts possess antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities, indicating A. nitida as a potential candidate for the discovery of novel phytopharmaceutical products and industrial applications.