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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Davis, California » Crops Pathology and Genetics Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #385672

Research Project: Resilient, Sustainable Production Strategies for Low-Input Environments

Location: Crops Pathology and Genetics Research

Title: Esca and young vine decline

item Baumgartner, Kendra
item Mahaffee, Walter - Walt

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 10/12/2021
Publication Date: 2/1/2022
Citation: Baumgartner, K., Mahaffee, W.F. 2022. Esca and young vine decline. In: Moyer, M.M., O'Neal, S.D., editors. Field Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Pacific Northwest Vineyards. 2nd edition. Pacific Northwest Extension Publication #PNW644. Pullman, WA: Washington State University Press. p. 89-91.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Esca and Young Vine Decline (YVD) are two of several ‘grapevine trunk diseases’. Esca primarily impacts fruit quality due to improper/uneven ripening and fruit spotting. Leaf and fruit symptoms tend to first appear in mature vineyards between years 5 and 10. YVD primarily impacts vine vigor and appears (as the name suggests) within the first 5 years of a vineyard’s lifespan. Young vines do not grow out of YVD. Esca and YVD share some of the same wood symptoms and have some wood-infecting pathogens in common, although YVD often also includes the trunk disease Cylindrocarpon root rot (aka Black leg/foot). Preventative practices for Esca are the same as those for other grapevine trunk diseases, such as Eutypa dieback. Because the pruning wounds and other wounds to woody tissues are thought to be the main point of entry by spores of the causal fungi, practices that minimize wound infection are the best approach for managing Esca. Pruning late in the dormant season means wounds are more likely to heal more rapidly than early in the dormant season; the period of wound susceptibility is shorter and thus the risk of infection is lower. Various fungicides have been reported to protect pruning wounds and are currently being tested in the PNW. Thiophanate-methyl is labeled and recommended for use in the PNW. To minimize the risk of YVD, inspect nursery stock for wood symptoms. Also, careful soil preparation, planting conditions, and proper irrigation may help minimize the risk of symptom expression.