|CHUNG, DAVID - University Of Connecticut|
|TORCHETTI, MIA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|KILLIAN, MARY - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|LEE, DONG-HUN - University Of Connecticut|
Submitted to: Virus Evolution
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 2/9/2022
Publication Date: 2/9/2022
Citation: Chung, D.H., Torchetti, M.K., Killian, M.L., Swayne, D.E., Lee, D. 2022. Transmission dynamics of low pathogenicity avian influenza (H2N2) viruses in live bird markets of the Northeast United States of America, 2013-2019. Virus Evolution. 8(1). Article veac009. https://doi.org/10.1093/ve/veac009.
Interpretive Summary: A study of poultry in the Live bird market (LBM) in New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland during 2013-2019 identified H2N2 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV). Special genetic analysis determined the LPAIV originated from wild birds and were first introduced into poultry of the Pennsylvania LBMs in March 2012 with spread to New York City LBMs during late 2012 - early 2013. Subsequently, the LPAIV spread from New York State LBMs back to Pennsylvania. Additional data analysis determined domestic ducks and contaminated LBM environment were important reservoirs in maintenance and dissemination of H2N2 LPAIV.
Technical Abstract: Live bird market (LBM) surveillance was conducted in the Northeast United States (US) to monitor for the presence of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry and market environments. A total of 384 H2N2 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) isolated from active surveillance efforts in the LBM system of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland during 2013-2019 were included in this analysis. Comparative phylogenetic analysis showed that a wild-bird-origin H2N2 virus may have been introduced into the LBMs in Pennsylvania and independently evolved since March 2012 followed by spread to LBMs in New York City during late 2012-early 2013. LBMs in New York state played a key role in the maintenance and dissemination of the virus to LBMs in the Northeast US including reverse spread to Pennsylvania LBMs. The frequent detections in the domestic ducks and market environment with viral transmissions between birds and environment possibly led to viral adaptation and circulation in domestic gallinaceous poultry in LBMs, suggesting significant roles of domestic ducks and contaminated LBM environment as reservoirs in maintenance and dissemination of H2N2 LPAIV.