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Research Project: Impact of Maternal Influence and Early Dietary Factors on Child Growth, Development, and Metabolic Health

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Title: Editorial: Impact of early life nutrition on immune system development and related health outcomes in later life

item YERUVA, LAXMI - Arkansas Children'S Nutrition Research Center (ACNC)
item MUNBLIT, DANIEL - Moscow State University
item COLLADO, MARIA CARMEN - Institute Of Agrochemistry And Food Technology

Submitted to: Frontiers in Immunology
Publication Type: Review Article
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/11/2021
Publication Date: 3/25/2021
Citation: Yeruva, L., Munblit, D., Collado, M. 2021. Editorial: Impact of early life nutrition on immune system development and related health outcomes in later life. Frontiers in Immunology. 12:668569.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Human milk (HM) is a complex mixture of macronutrients and bioactive compounds that provide optimal nutrition to infants. Human milk has been shown to impact infant's gut, immune system, microbiota composition, metabolism and also may have long-term effects on the development of infectious and non-communicable diseases. The aim of this editorial is to provide the summary of the original research, reviews and opinions regarding key factors affecting human milk composition, and the role of bioactive components of human milk on infants' health. Maternal obesity and maternal atopy are highly prevalent states that may have an effect on HM composition and infants' health outcomes. Few studies, however, have attempted to evaluate associations between HM metabolome composition and measures of infants' health and development. For instance, Bardanzellu et. al., reviewed different studies for HM metabolite profile from mothers with overweight and obesity in an attempt to determine the milk metabolome composition with respect to obesity. However, the small sample size and large variability of the measures precluded the investigators from drawing conclusions which underscores the necessity of large sample size studies in this area of research. The authors, however, found that the fatty acid profile of human milk was associated with the maternal obesity status. Specifically, higher levels of saturated fatty acids and lower levels of monounsaturated and n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in milk of women with obesity compared to milk of women with normal weight. These changes in milk composition may influence long-term weight gain and glucose tolerance, in infants.