|CRIADO, MIRIA - Consultant|
|STALLKNECHT, DAVID - University Of Georgia|
Submitted to: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/16/2021
Publication Date: 10/27/2021
Citation: Criado, M.F., Moresco, K.A., Stallknecht, D.E., Swayne, D.E. 2021. Low-pathogenicity influenza viruses replicate differently in laughing gulls and mallards. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 15(6):701-706. https://doi.org/10.1111/irv.12878.
Interpretive Summary: Low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have been identified in diverse, seasonal long-distance migrant aquatic bird species. In this study, we performed challenge experiments using the laughing gulls and mallard against six North American LPAIVs that were originally isolated from either gulls or ducks. Results demonstrated infection with different patterns of viral shedding associated with relevant LPAIV subtypes in laughing gulls as compared to mallards. Our goal was to understand LPAIVs infectivity and pathogenesis for the purpose of understanding the role of host on the mechanism of transmission and ecological maintenance.
Technical Abstract: Wild aquatic birds are natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs). Laughing gulls inoculated with four gull-origin LPAIVs (H7N3, H6N4, H3N8, and H2N3) had a predominate respiratory infection. By contrast, mallards inoculated with two mallard-origin LPAIVs (H5N6 and H4N8) became infected and had similar virus titers in oropharyngeal (OP) and cloacal (CL) swabs. The trend toward predominate OP shedding in gulls suggest a greater role of direct bird transmission in maintenance, whereas mallards shedding suggests importance of fecal-oral transmission through water contamination. Additional infectivity and pathogenesis studies are needed to confirm this replication difference for LPAI viruses in gulls.