|KWON, JUNG-HOON - ORISE FELLOW|
|FERREIRA CRIADO, MIRIA - CONSULTANT|
|ALI, M - BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE|
|GIASUDDIN, MOHAMMED - BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE|
|SAMAD, MOHAMMED - BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE|
|KARIM, M - BANGLADESH AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE|
|BRUM, ERIC - FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)|
|HASAN, M - FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO)|
|LEE, DUNG-HUN - UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT|
Submitted to: Vaccine
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/12/2021
Publication Date: 4/25/2021
Citation: Kwon, J., Ferreira Criado, M., Killmaster, L.F., Ali, M.Z., Giasuddin, M., Samad, M.A., Karim, M.R., Brum, E., Hasan, M.Z., Lee, D., Spackman, E., Swayne, D.E. 2021. Efficacy of two vaccines against recent emergent antigenic variants of Clade 184.108.40.206a highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in Bangladesh. Vaccine. 39(21):2824-2832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.04.022.
Interpretive Summary: Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused outbreaks in poultry of Bangladesh since 2007. Vaccines have been used for control since 2012 and need to be assessed for protection against the latest field viruses. We determined that the hemagglutinin of most H5N1 HPAI viruses from Bangladesh (2016-2018) were similar based on genetic analysis and immune assays. However, a HPAI virus from a house crow isolate was a genetic and immune assay outlier. Fortunately, the two licensed vaccines provided protection and reduced viral shedding from chickens. ' Continual monitoring is crucial for early detection of vaccine resistant strains.
Technical Abstract: H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have caused outbreaks in poultry in Bangladesh since 2007. While clade 2.2.2 and 220.127.116.11 HPAIVs have not been detected since 2012, clade 18.104.22.168a viruses have caused continuous outbreaks since 2012 despite the use of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two H5 vaccines licensed in Bangladesh, RE-6 inactivated vaccine, and a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys vaccine with an H5 insert (rHVT-H5), for protection against recent field viruses in chickens. We selected three viruses for efficacy tests (A/chicken/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-3237/2017, A/crow/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8471/2017 and A/chicken/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8323/2017) from 36 H5 viruses isolated from Bangladesh between 2016 and 2018 by comparing the amino acid sequences at five antigenic sites (A-E) and analyzing hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers with reference antisera. The RE-6 and rHVT-H5 vaccines both conferred 80–100% clinical protection (i.e. reduced morbidity and mortality) against the three challenge viruses with no significant differences in protection. In addition, both vaccines significantly decreased viral shedding from infected chickens as compared to challenge control chickens. Based on these metrics, the current licensed H5 vaccines protected chickens against the recent field viruses. However, the A/crow/Bangladesh/NRL-AI-8471/2017 virus exhibited antigenic divergence including: several unique amino acid changes in antigenic epitope sites A and B and was a serological outlier in cross HI tests as visualized on the antigenic map. The continuing emergence of such antigenic variants which could alter the dominant antigenicity of field viruses should be continuously monitored and vaccines should be updated if field efficacy declines.