Location: Natural Products Utilization ResearchTitle: Newly generated Atractylon derivatives in the processed rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz
|ZHAI, CHUNMEI - Heilongjiang University|
|ZHAO, JIANPING - University Of Mississippi|
|CHITTIBOYINA, AMAR - University Of Mississippi|
|MENG, YONGHAI - Heilongjiang University|
|KHAN, SHABANA - University Of Mississippi|
|KHAN, IKHLAS - University Of Mississippi|
Submitted to: Molecules
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/8/2020
Publication Date: 12/13/2020
Citation: Zhai, C., Zhao, J., Chittiboyina, A.G., Meng, Y., Wang, M., Khan, S.I., Khan, I.A. 2020. Newly generated Atractylon derivatives in the processed rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Molecules. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245904.
Interpretive Summary: The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz (RAM) is a well-known herbal medicine, and has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disorders, such as loss of appetite, diarrhea, limb weakness, gastrointestinal dysfunction, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and some chronic inflammatory diseases. RAM has been used in more than 835 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, as well as an integral component of more than 4340 classic prescriptions. It is traditionally used in its processed form achieved by stir-frying raw RAM with wheat bran. The processing technique, known as Pao-Zhi in TCM, has been widely used for the preparation of Chinese Materia Medica, and is also currently documented in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. It has been reported that, after processing, the medical potency can be increased, and/or the toxicity and side effect can be reduced. Although processed RAM is commonly used as an ingredient in various Chinese medicines and health products, the chemical compositional change as a result of processing remains unclear. In the present study, an NMR-based metabolomics approach was used to investigate the change of chemical composition during processing of RAM. Five new compounds were isolated from the RAM processed by stir-frying with wheat bran. The chemical structures were determined by both spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. In addition, a plausible mechanism for the generation of these new compounds was proposed. Furthermore, their cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activities were evaluated.
Technical Abstract: Thermally processed rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala (RAM) have a long history of use in Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating various disorders and have been an integral component of various traditional drugs and healthcare products. In TCM, herbal medicines are, in most cases, uniquely processed. Although it is thought that processing can alter the properties and functions of herbal medicines so as to achieve desired properties, increase potency, and/or reduce side effects, the underlying chemical changes remain unclear for most thermally processed Chinese herbal medicines. In an attempt to shed some light on the scientific rationale behind the processes involved in traditional medicine, the RAM processed by stir-frying with wheat bran was investigated for the change of chemical composition. As a result, for the first time, five new chemical entities, along with ten known compounds, were isolated. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic and spectrometric analyses. The possible synthetic pathway for the generation of such thermally induced chemical entities was also proposed. Furthermore, biological activity evaluation showed that none of the compounds possessed cytotoxic effects against the tested mammalian cancer and noncancer cell lines. In addition, all compounds were ineffective at inhibiting the growth of the pathogenic microorganisms.