Location: Infectious Bacterial Diseases ResearchTitle: Bovine immune response to vaccination and infection with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo
Submitted to: mSphere
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 3/1/2021
Publication Date: 3/24/2021
Citation: Wilson-Welder, J.H., Alt, D.P., Nally, J.E., Olsen, S.C. 2021. Bovine immune response to vaccination and infection with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. mSphere. 6(2). https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00988-20.
Interpretive Summary: Leptospirosis is an underdiagnosed, underreported zoonotic disease for which domestic livestock can be carriers. As a reservoir host for Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, cattle may present with reproductive issues including abortion, birth of weak or infected calves as well as failure to breed. Despite years of study and the availability of commercial vaccines, detailed analysis of the bovine immune response to vaccination and Leptospira challenge is lacking. This study evaluated immunologic responses to two efficacious commercial vaccines or a novel bacterin vaccine using an adjuvant chosen for enhanced cellular immune responses. Antigen-specific responsive CD4, and gamma-delta T-cells were detected following vaccination and associated with release of inflammatory cytokines IFN-gamma and IL17a after stimulation. CD4 and gamma-delta cells increased in number one week after infection and, combined with serum antibody, may play a role in clearance of bacteria from the blood and resident tissues. Additionally, these antigen reactive T-cells were found in the regional lymph nodes following infection, indicating memory responses may not be circulating, but still present in regional lymph nodes. The information gained in this study expands knowledge of bovine immune response to leptospirosis vaccines and infection. The use of oil-emulsion adjuvants may enhance early immune responses to leptospiral bacterins, which could be useful in outbreak or endemic situations.
Technical Abstract: This study examined the humoral and cellular response of cattle vacci- nated with two commercial leptospiral vaccines, Leptavoid and Spirovac, and a novel bacterin vaccine using Seppic Montanide oil emulsion adjuvant. Vaccination was fol- lowed by experimental challenge. All vaccinated cattle were protected from colonization of the kidney and shedding of Leptospira in urine, as detected by culture and immuno- 'uorescence assay. Agglutinating antibody titers were detected in vaccinated cattle at 4 weeks following vaccination, with small anamnestic response detected following ex- perimental challenge. Only animals vaccinated with the oil emulsion-adjuvanted bacterin produced signi'cant IgG2 titers following vaccination, and nonvaccinated animals pro- duced serum IgA titers after experimental challenge. CD41 and gd T cells from vacci- nated cattle proliferated when cultured with antigen ex vivo. Cellular responses included a marked proliferation of gd T cells immediately following experimental challenge in vaccinated cattle and release of gamma interferon (IFN-g), interleukin 17a (IL-17a), and IL-12p40 from stimulated cells. Proliferative and cytokine responses were found not just in peripheral mononuclear cells but also in lymphocytes isolated from renal lymph nodes at 10 weeks following experimental challenge. Overall, effects of leptospirosis vac- cination and infection were subtle, resulting in only modest activation of CD41 and gd T cells. The use of Seppic Montanide oil emulsion adjuvants may shorten the initiation of response to vaccination, which could be useful during outbreaks or in areas where leptospirosis is endemic.