Location: Natural Products Utilization ResearchTitle: Effect of raspberry ketone on normal, obese and health-compromised obese mice: A preliminary study
|MIR, TAHIR MAQBOOL - University Of Mississippi|
|MA, GUOYI - University Of Alabama At Birmingham|
|ALI, ZULFIQAR - University Of Mississippi|
|KHAN, IKHLAS - University Of Mississippi|
|ASHFAQ, MOHAMMAD - University Of Mississippi|
Submitted to: Journal of Dietary Supplement
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/27/2019
Publication Date: 10/11/2019
Citation: Mir, T., Ma, G., Ali, Z., Khan, I.A., Ashfaq, M.K. 2019. Effect of raspberry ketone on normal, obese and health-compromised obese mice: A preliminary study. Journal of Dietary Supplement. https://doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2019.1674996.
Interpretive Summary: The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus. The fruit of Rubus idaeus is an important food crop. Raspberry ketone (RK) is one of the major aromatic compounds from the fruit of this plant. It is widely used in perfumery, cosmetics, and as a food additive to impart a fruity odor. It is one of the most expensive natural flavor components used in the food industry. In 1965, the US Food and Drug Administration classified raspberry ketone as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for the small quantities used to flavor foods. Reports revealed that the amount of RK sold in US markets in dietary supplements is well above the maximum recommended concentration for food products. To date, RK is widely used as an over the counter product for weight loss and marketed as “Raspberry ketone: Miracle fat-burner in a bottle”. The present study was conducted to determine adverse effects associated with RK in obese and health-compromised obese mice. The results of the present study showed that while RK may have weight reducing properties at higher doses and for longer durations, it also has the potential to be hepatotoxic. As weight-reducing agents are often consumed for long durations to achieve the desired level of effect, therefore, long-term experiments are essential at more physiologically relevant doses to determine a safe dose of RK, under obese and health compromised-obese conditions.
Technical Abstract: Background: Raspberry ketone (RK)—an aromatic compound found mostly in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) is widely used as an over the counter product for weight loss. Aim: The present study was conducted to determine adverse effects associated with RK in obese and health-compromised obese mice. Methodology: Two sets of experiments were conducted on normal obese and health-compromised obese mice treated with RK for a duration of 10 days. Obese conditions were induced by feeding mice a high fat diet for 10 weeks, while the health compromised obese mouse model was developed by a single intraperitoneal injection of a nontoxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (6 mg/kg) to obese mice. Results: Results showed that RK (165, 330, and 500mg/kg) under obese as well as health-compromised condition retarded the gain in body weights as compared to the control groups. RK at doses 330 and 500 mg/kg resulted in 67.6 and 50% mortality, respectively in normal obese mice and 70% mortality was observed in health-compromised obese mice treated with RK at 500mg/kg. At higher doses deaths were observed earlier than those given lower doses of RK. Significant elevations in blood alanine transaminase (ALT) were also observed with RK treatment in obese mice. Blood glucose levels were significantly elevated in all groups of mice treated with RK. Conclusion: This study suggests that higher doses of RK may cause adverse effects in health compromised conditions. Under these conditions, prolonged use of RK, especially in high doses, may pose a health hazard.