Location: Crop Production Systems ResearchTitle: Comparison of WeatherMax® and Engame™ formulations of glyphosate on cotyledon surface structure, chlorophyll A fluorescence and shikimate levels in isogenic cotton cultivars differing in Roundup resistance
|BOWLING, ANDREW - Corteva Agriscience|
|VAUGHN, KEVIN - Retired ARS Employee|
Submitted to: American Journal of Plant Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/8/2020
Publication Date: 8/11/2020
Citation: Molin, W.T., Bowling, A.J., Vaughn, K.C. 2020. Comparison of WeatherMax® and Engame™ formulations of glyphosate on cotyledon surface structure, chlorophyll A fluorescence and shikimate levels in isogenic cotton cultivars differing in Roundup resistance. American Journal of Plant Sciences. 11:1193-1205. https://doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2020.118084.
Interpretive Summary: The activity of different formulations of popular herbicides such as glyphosate may vary considerably. Scientists in the USDA-ARS Crop Production Systems Research Unit, Stoneville, MS conducted research to better understand the basis for improved activity of a new glyphosate formulation using cotton cultivars with identical genetic backgrounds except for glyphosate resistance. The results showed increased surface damage leading to improved uptake of herbicide and increased herbicidal activity. These results indicate that selection of herbicides formulated to improve uptake against the weeds to be controlled could improve weed management decisions.
Technical Abstract: The effects of Roundup WeatherMax® and Engame™ formulations of glyphosate were investigated on the cotyledons of glyphosate resistant (GR) and glyphosate sensitive (GS) isogenic cotton cultivars. Engame™ is a mixture of glyphosate and 1-aminomethanamide dihydrogen tetraoxosulfate (AMADS). Fully expanded cotton cotyledons treated with Engame™ or AMADS developed surface lesions within 2 hours after treatment whereas surfactant-treated control or WeatherMax®-treated tissues did not develop lesions. The Engame™ and AMADS damage appeared as depressions which were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Light micrographs of cross sections through the depressions revealed collapsed and compressed epidermal and mesophyll cells with congealed cytoplasmic contents in the palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. Changes to photosynthetic electron transport were evident at 4 hours after treatment (HAT) in all treatments as revealed by chlorophyll A fluorescence. In GR cotton, the fluorescence perturbations decreased with time such that at 72 HAT Engame™-treated cotyledons could not be distinguished from the surfactant- or Weathermax-treated plants. The GS cotton continued to show progressive decreases in the fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm and performance index (PI) to 72 HAT. Shikimate levels increased following glyphosate treatment in glyphosate sensitive cotton and Engame™ caused a two- to three-fold greater increase in shikimate compared to WeatherMax®. These results indicate that the Engame™-based glyphosate formulation involved structural tissue damage which likely increased glyphosate uptake and subsequently increased inhibition of photosynthesis and the shikimate pathway.