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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #374654

Research Project: Genetic and Biological Determinants of Avian Herpesviruses Pathogenicity, Transmission, and Evolution to Inform the Development of Effective Control Strategies

Location: Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases Research

Title: Detection of Avian Neoplastic Disease Viruses in Formalin-fixed Neoplastic Livers of Layers from Farms in Kaduna and Plateau States, Nigeria

Author
item SANI, N.A. - University Of Abuja
item ABALAKA, S.E. - University Of Abuja
item UGOCHUKWU, C.I. - University Of Nigeria
item SALEH, A. - Ahmadu Bello University
item MUHAMMAD, S.M. - Ahmadu Bello University
item OLADELE, S.B. - Ahmadu Bello University
item ABDU, P.A. - Ahmadu Bello University
item NJOKU, C.O.I. - University Of Jos
item Dunn, John

Submitted to: Comparative Clinical Pathology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/17/2022
Publication Date: 6/28/2022
Citation: Sani, N., Abalaka, S., Ugochukwu, C., Saleh, A., Muhammad, S., Oladele, S., Abdu, P., Njoku, C., Dunn, J.R. 2022. Detection of Avian Neoplastic Disease Viruses in Formalin-fixed Neoplastic Livers of Layers from Farms in Kaduna and Plateau States, Nigeria. Comparative Clinical Pathology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-022-03373-x.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00580-022-03373-x

Interpretive Summary: The three most important virus-induced tumor diseases in poultry include Marek’s disease, avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis. A diagnosis can generally be made based on clinical history and standard microscopic examination. However, cases with mixed infection of the viruses are common occurrences in the field, and require advanced diagnostic methods. In this study, 17 tumors were evaluated from Kaduna and Plateau States in Nigeria. Two of the viruses were commonly detected in these tumors, Marek's disease virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus, whereas avian leukosis virus was not found in any of the tumors. Although advanced diagnostic methods did not offer complete agreement, it is clear that Marek’s disease virus and reticuloendotheliosis virus are endemic in the study areas. Therefore, a national program for the control and eradication is recommended.

Technical Abstract: Viral-induced avian neoplastic diseases of importance in poultry are Marek’s disease, avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis. A presumptive diagnosis can generally be made based on clinical history and histopathology. However, cases of avian neoplasms due to mixed infection of the viruses are common occurrences in the field, which can only be diagnosed using advanced diagnostic methods, hence the need for this study. Therefore, 7 and 10 formalin-fixed neoplastic livers from Kaduna and Plateau States, respectively, were screened for the presence of Marek’s disease virus (MDV), avian leukosis virus (ALV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antigens using immunohistochemistry and PCR. The results of immunohistochemistry indicate that all the 17 samples from Kaduna and Plateau States tested negative for ALV-A/B. However, all the 17 samples from the 2 states tested positive for REV. Only 14.3% of the samples from Kaduna State tested positive for MDV1, whereas all the samples from Plateau State tested negative for MDV1. The results of PCR indicate that all the 17 samples from Kaduna and Plateau States tested negative for ALV-A/B/J. However, 57.1% and 50% of the samples from Kaduna and Plateau States respectively, tested positive for REV, whereas 71.4% and 70% of the samples from Kaduna and Plateau States respectively, tested positive for MDV1. Although immunohistochemistry and PCR did not offer complete agreement, it is clear that Marek’s disease virus and REV infections are endemic in the study areas. Therefore, a national programme for the control and eradication of avian neoplastic disease viruses is recommended.