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ARS Home » Pacific West Area » Pullman, Washington » WHGQ » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #374603

Research Project: Wheat Quality, Functionality and Marketablility in the Western U.S.

Location: Wheat Health, Genetics, and Quality Research

Title: Breeding, selection, and quality characteristics of soft white wheat

Author
item Morris, Craig
item ENGLE, DOUG - Washington State University
item KISZONAS, ALECIA - Washington State University

Submitted to: Cereal Foods World
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 8/19/2020
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Soft white wheat is a major class of wheat grown in the U.S. Soft white wheat is classified as either ‘common’ or ‘club’, and although the two share a number of similarities, they also possess distinctly different end-use qualities; they are also blended to make ‘Western White’. Soft white wheats possess white bran and soft kernel texture. They exhibit high break and straight-grade flour yields, at low ash and low starch damage. Their flours have low water absorption, and low Water-, Carbonate-, and Sucrose-Solvent Retention Capacities. In standard bake tests, soft white wheat produces large diameter cookies and sponge cakes with large volumes and tender, fine crumb grain. Gluten strength among varieties of soft white common wheat range from moderately weak to moderately strong. Club wheats on the other hand are uniformly weak. Objective quality targets have been developed for soft white wheat though the PNW Wheat Quality Council using the USDA Western Wheat Quality Lab as a reference lab. Innovations in soft white wheat include soft kernel durum wheat, ‘Super Soft’ kernel wheat, partial waxy wheat for white salted noodles, and full waxy wheat for puffing and unique processing. Lastly, the emerging area of whole wheat flavor is being explored for the breeding and selection of soft white wheat.

Technical Abstract: As opposed to hard kernelled wheats used for yeast leavened breads, soft wheats are used for cookies, cakes, and confections. The U.S. Pacific Northwest produces about 6.5-7 mmt of soft white wheat annually. This soft white grain is marketed as being either ‘common’ soft white, ‘club’ or a blend of the two. The never ending need to produce new cultivars of soft white wheat requires an understanding of the foods that are best suited to soft white wheat, and the physical and chemical properties of soft white grain and flour that contribute to consistent, superior consumer products. The Pacific Northwest Wheat Quality Council facilitates communication among wheat breeders, millers, food manufacturers, and farmers to identify and define soft white wheat quality targets. Soft white wheat exhibits high break and straight-grade flour yields, at low ash and low starch damage. Their flours have low water absorption, and low Water-, Carbonate-, and Sucrose-Solvent Retention Capacities. In standard bake tests, soft white wheat produces large diameter cookies and sponge cakes with large volumes and tender, fine crumb grain. Gluten strength among varieties of soft white common wheat range from moderately weak to moderately strong. Club wheats are uniformly weak. Innovations in soft white wheat include soft kernel durum wheat, ‘Super Soft’ wheat, partial waxy wheat for white salted noodles, and full waxy wheat for puffing and unique processing. Lastly, the subject of whole wheat flavor is being explored for the breeding and selection of soft white wheat.