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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #370524

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Prevent and Control Disease Outbreaks Caused by Emerging Strains of Avian Influenza Viruses

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Characterization of a novel avian influenza live virus vaccine based on disruption of M2/M42 gene expression that protects against clade 0 and 2.3.4.4 highly pathogenic avian influenza

Author
item Kapczynski, Darrell
item SEGOVIA, KAREN - ORISE FELLOW
item CHRZASTEK, KLAUDIA - ORISE FELLOW
item VERVELDE, LONNEKE - UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
item MURPHY, LITA - UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH
item Pantin-Jackwood, Mary
item Suarez, David
item DIGARD, PAUL - UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

Submitted to: American Association of Avian Pathologists
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/22/2020
Publication Date: N/A
Citation: N/A

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: Continued global outbreaks of H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) have been reported in poultry since the emergence of the Asian Goose/Guangdong lineage of HPAIV H5N1. Consequently, vaccines have been developed and employed to protect commercial and non-commercial poultry flocks. However, constant changes in virus immunogenetics makes vaccine candidates that prevent morbidity, mortality, reduce shedding, and prevent transmission a moving target. In this study, we tested the effects of disrupting expression of either of the two isoforms of the viral ion channel expressed by the low pathogenic H5N2 avian influenza virus (LPAIV) progenitor of the 1983 Pennsylvania HPAIV outbreak. Both 'M2 and 'M42 versions of the A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1/83 virus replicated well in vitro and in ovo, but showed altered virion morphology, with the 'M42 virus exhibiting filamentous budding. The 'M2 and 'M42 virus also infected chickens efficiently and stimulated robust immune responses; however, unlike the wild-type virus, they did not transmit to naïve-contact birds. In protection studies, vaccination of birds with 'M2 or 'M42 vaccine viruses protected 100% birds from homologous and heterologous HPAIV challenge, including North American and Southeast Asia-lineage. Live virus vaccination significantly reduced virus shedding compared to controls and by 10,000-fold more when compared to inactivated forms of the vaccine virus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate a strategy for developing a non-transmittable but highly protective live attenuated virus for avian influenza viruse.