|GUTIERREZ, SANTIAGO - University Of Leon|
|CARDOZA, ROSA - University Of Leon|
|LINDO, LAURA - University Of Leon|
|ALEXANDER, NANCY - Retired ARS Employee|
Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2019
Publication Date: 7/17/2020
Citation: Gutierrez, S., McCormick, S.P., Cardoza, R.E., Lindo, L., Alexander, N.J., Proctor, R.H. 2020. Trichoderma trichothecenes: beyond their toxic effect. In: Gupta, V.K., Singh, H.B., Zeilinger, S., Druzhinina, I. New and Future Developments in Microbial Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier B.V. p. 281-301. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-819453-9.00013-1.
Technical Abstract: Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid toxins, whose production by Trichoderma species is restricted to few species belonging or closely related to the Brevicompactum clade. These species typically produce one of two structurally similar trichothecene analogs: harzianum A (HA) or trichodermin. Most Trichoderma trichothecene biosynthetic (tri) genes are clustered and occur at multiple loci. However, Trichoderma species are unique in that tri5, which encodes a terpene synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in trichothecene biosynthesis, is not located near other tri genes. T. arundinaceum tri6 and tri10 homologs regulate expression of all other tri genes as well as genes involved in biosynthesis of some other metabolites. Trichoderma trichothecenes exhibit diverse biological activities, including inhibitory activity against human tumor, plant and fungal cells. In T. arundinaceum, HA production affects levels of biosynthetic intermediates of other terpenes, such as ergosterol, and also affects expression of virulence genes and production of the terpene botrydial in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Together, recent findings on trichothecene production in Trichoderma have provided insight into how the toxins affect the physiology of the producers and the organisms with which they interact.