Location: Nutrient Data LaboratoryTitle: Content and Variability of Vitamin D and Iodine in Processed Egg Products in the U.S.
|ROSELAND, JANET - Consultant|
|SOMANCHI, MEENA - Consultant|
|BAHADUR, RAHUL - University Of Maryland|
|HAYTOWITZ, DAVID - Retired ARS Employee|
Submitted to: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 12/26/2019
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: In the U.S., some individuals do not consume enough of the nutrients iodine and vitamin D, and for those whose intake is extremely inadequate, this can result in serious health issues. Eggs can be an important dietary source of iodine, vitamin D, and the biologically active form of vitamin D known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Processed eggs such as dried and frozen liquid eggs also provide these nutrients. For this study, samples of processed eggs were obtained from six U.S. processors (up to three production lots per category) and sent to qualified laboratories for chemical analysis. The categories included were dried and frozen liquid forms of whole eggs, yolks, and whites. The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrient values of processed eggs and to determine to what extent the values varied within these egg forms. The nutrient values were compared using statistical models after calculations were made so that the forms could be considered equivalent on a dry weight basis. No significant differences were found for vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3 or iodine content when dried eggs were compared to frozen liquid eggs, as whole eggs and as yolks. Variability in vitamin D and iodine content was seen in some egg categories. Up-to-date values and variability data for processed eggs from this study can provide valuable information that will be helpful for estimating the amounts of iodine and vitamin D obtained from processed eggs.
Technical Abstract: Iodine and vitamin D deficiencies among specific subpopulations within the U.S. are of concern. Eggs, including processed forms, can be an important dietary source of iodine, vitamin D3, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Processed eggs (dried and frozen liquid forms of whole eggs, yolks, and whites) are used in food manufacturing and foodservice. Samples were obtained from six U.S. processors (up to three production lots per category), to examine analytical iodine and vitamin D values and variability measures. Samples and quality control materials were sent to USDA validated analytical laboratories. Nutrient values were statistically compared after adjusting the values for moisture content, with each nutrient dataset modeled separately using linear mixed models. No significant differences were found for vitamin D3, 25(OH)D3 or iodine content of dried eggs compared to frozen liquid eggs by their whole egg and yolk parts, on a dry weight basis. Updated values and variability data for processed eggs were incorporated into FoodData Central, the U.S. Department of Agriculture food composition database. These data contribute valuable information for estimating U.S. intake amounts of iodine and vitamin D.