|SILVEIRA, SIMONE - Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Norte|
|KAPLAN, BRYAN - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)|
|CROSSLEY, B - University Of California, Davis|
|BAUERMANN, FERNANDO - Oklahoma State University|
|FOSSLER, CHARLES - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|DARGATZ, DAVID - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)|
|CANAL, CLAUDIO - Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Norte|
Submitted to: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/1/2019
Publication Date: 9/30/2019
Citation: Silveira, S., Falkenberg, S.M., Kaplan, B.S., Crossley, B., Ridpath, J.F., Bauermann, F.B., Fossler, C.P., Dargatz, D.A., Dassanayake, R.P., Vincent, A.L., Canal, C.W., Neill, J.D. 2019. Serosurvey for influenza D virus exposure in cattle, United States, 2014-2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 25(11). https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2511.1902532.
Interpretive Summary: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most economically important disease affecting the cattle industry. Viral pathogens are thought to predispose animals to secondary bacterial pneumonia which can lead to high morbidity, mortality and treatment costs. Influenza D virus (IDV) has recently been shown to be in diagnostic samples from cattle in the US and implicated to be a viral pathogen associated with the BRD complex. Despite longstanding widespread use of multivalent viral vaccines, the incidence of BRD continues to increase. While, it is unknown the continued increase in the incidence of BRD has been hypothesized to be due to emerging pathogens, such as IDV, that are not contained in the current viral vaccines. Results from this study suggest that IDV is widespread in US cattle. Regional variation in IDV prevalence was observed, although all regions in the US had a relatively a high frequency. These results may translate to improved control strategies for BRD, by better understanding the prevalence of IDV in US cattle.
Technical Abstract: An emerging influenza virus, Influenza D (IDV), has been detected predominantly in cattle from several countries. In the USA, regional and state level IDV seropositive rates have previously been reported, but little information exists to evaluate the national seroprevalence. Thus, a serosurveillance study was performed and found a high overall seropositive rate of 77.5% nationally and demonstrated that IDV circulated widely in cattle during this period. Samples from the Upper Midwest and Mountain West regions showed the highest seropositive rates ranging from 82.8-86.1% with antibody reciprocal geometric mean titers (GMT) from 193-321. The ubiquitous distribution of IDV in cattle from the USA highlights the need for greater understanding about pathogenesis, epidemiology and the implications associated to animal health.