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ARS Home » Southeast Area » Athens, Georgia » U.S. National Poultry Research Center » Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #360611

Research Project: Intervention Strategies to Prevent and Control Disease Outbreaks Caused by Emerging Strains of Avian Influenza Viruses

Location: Exotic & Emerging Avian Viral Diseases Research

Title: Hemagglutination inhibition assay

item Spackman, Erica
item SITARAS, IOANNIS - Orise Fellow

Submitted to: Animal Influenza Virus
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: 5/1/2019
Publication Date: 3/27/2020
Citation: Spackman E, Sitaras I. 2020. Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay. In: Spackman, E., Editor. Animal Influenza Virus Methods and Protocols. 3rd Edition. Methods in Molecular Biology, volume 2123. New York, NY: Humana. p. 11-28. doi:

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: The hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay for influenza A viruses has been used since the 1940’s. The assay may be utilized to detect or quantify antibodies to influenza A viruses, and can be used to characterize differences in antigenic reactivity between influenza isolates. In addition, data from HI assays are routinely used for antigenic cartography, influenza virus surveillance, epidemiology and vaccine-seed strain selection. For antibody quantification, the HI assay is a fast and inexpensive method; other than a source of red blood cells, no expensive or unusual lab equipment is needed, and results can be obtained within a few hours. Historically, the HI assay has also served as a primary method of subtype identification, and is still used widely. However, as gene sequencing technology has evolved to be cheaper and faster, it is replacing the HI assay for this purpose.