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Research Project: Identification of the Ecological Niches and Development of Intervention Strategies to Reduce Pathogenic Foodborne Pathogens in Poultry

Location: Food and Feed Safety Research

Title: Editorial: Mechanisms of persistence, survival, and transmission of bacterial foodborne pathogens in production animals

Author
item Swaggerty, Christina - Christi
item Genovese, Kenneth - Ken
item He, Louis - Haiqi
item Byrd, James - Diamond V Mills, Inc
item Kogut, Michael - Mike

Submitted to: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/6/2018
Publication Date: 6/20/2018
Citation: Swaggerty, C.L., Genovese, K.J., He, L.H., Byrd, J.A., Kogut, M.H. 2018. Editorial: Mechanisms of persistence, survival, and transmission of bacterial foodborne pathogens in production animals. Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5: Article 139. https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00139.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00139

Interpretive Summary: Food safety relating to animal commodities is a global matter that directly affects public health and has significant consequences on international animal production industries and international trade. Calls for reductions in the use of antibiotics in food producing animals have steered researchers towards novel ways to break the chain of infection, colonization, persistence, survival, and transmission of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter. Salmonella has developed numerous mechanisms to allow it to avoid the host immune response. Moving forward, research on foodborne pathogens in food animals will need to focus on alternative pre- and post-harvest approaches. Studies are underway that will lay a foundation for future experiments to determine practical approaches to reduce the incidence of foodborne illnesses associated with poultry-acquired Salmonella. Some of these alternative approaches include investigations into the administration of either pre- or probiotics to feed or water systems. Numerous studies show they are effective. At the post-harvest level, carcasses treated with commercially available antimicrobials have reduced numbers of recoverable Campylobacter suggesting this treatment reduces contamination by this key foodborne pathogen. Another consideration is to grow broilers on clean-shavings, instead of the common practice of using built-up-litter, as a way to also reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination. These two approaches provide valuable insight into ways to reduce the incidence of Salmonella and Campylobacter carcass contamination. Understanding the complex interplay between food safety and animal production will require a multidisciplinary approach to further understand the host-pathogen interaction. The compilation of review articles and primary studies presented herein are some examples of the studies that will advance our knowledge in understanding the mechanisms behind persistence, survival, and transmission of foodborne pathogens in animal agriculture.

Technical Abstract: Food safety relating to animal commodities is a global matter that directly affects public health and has significant consequences on international animal production industries and international trade. For years, animal food safety research focused on surveillance and prevalence of foodborne pathogens. But now, with scientific advances, studies examining the host-pathogen interface are exploring at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and immunological levels of both participants. Calls for reductions in the use of antibiotics in food producing animals have steered researchers towards novel ways to break the chain of infection, colonization, persistence, survival, and transmission of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella. In attempts to reduce the contamination by poultry products with MDR Salmonella species, researchers must characterize these infections in poultry, learning the colonization characteristics and establishment of a "commensal" state, transmission among flock members, and ultimately, characterization of the host immune response to these pathogens. Human infections associated with multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella species in poultry have become a major concern. Salmonella virulence and subsequent relationships with persistence and survival in the host are firmly associated with colonization and have led researchers down various avenues of investigation including alternative housing of laying hens, the role of biofilms in Salmonella, and the signaling pathways associated with increased resistance against Salmonella colonization in broilers. Collectively, these studies have laid a solid foundation for future experiments to determine practical approaches to reduce the incidence of foodborne illnesses associated with poultry-acquired Salmonella. Understanding the complex interplay between food safety and animal production will require a multidisciplinary approach to begin to further understand the host-pathogen interaction. The compilation of review articles and primary studies presented herein are some examples of the studies that will advance our knowledge in understanding the mechanisms behind persistence, survival, and transmission of foodborne pathogens in animal agriculture.