Location: Diet, Genomics and Immunology LaboratoryTitle: HPLC Quantification and MS/NMR confirmation of Javamide-I/-II in Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions for finding better bean sources for Javamide-I/-II
Submitted to: Austin Chromatography
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 1/10/2019
Publication Date: 10/17/2019
Citation: Park, J.B., Wang, T.T., Zhang, D., Vega, F.E., Meinhardt, L.W. 2019. HPLC Quantification and MS/NMR confirmation of Javamide-I/-II in Arabica and Robusta coffee beans from different regions for finding better bean sources for Javamide-I/-II. Austin Chromatography. 6(1):1051. https://doi.org/10.26420/austinchromatogrl.2019.1051.
Interpretive Summary: Coffee is one of the popular drinks worldwide with many positive health effects on humans. Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee) and C. canephora (Robusta coffee) are two most important commercially traded coffee species. Arabica is a high altitude species, in contrast to Robusta, which grows best at lower elevations. This fact suggests that the chemical compositions of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans may be influenced by species and culture conditions, because Arabica and Robusta coffee plants are grown under different culture conditions. Javamide-I/-II are phenolic amides found in coffee beans. Recently, javamide-I/-II and their derivatives were reported to contain several biological activities related to human health. However, there is little information about the amounts of javamide-I/-II in Arabica and Robusta beans, and no information on the genetic or environmental impact on these compounds. Therefore, in this paper, javamide-I/-II in twelve coffee beans (eight Arabica and four Robusta beans) grown in Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Hawaii, Papua, New Guinea, Puerto Rico, India and Vietnam were extracted and their identities were confirmed by MS/MS and NMR spectroscopic method. Javamide-II was detected at levels ranging from 6.26 to 8.34 mg/g in four Robusta bean samples and 0.13 to 0.29 mg/g in Arabica bean samples with little geographical influence. However, unlike javamide-II, javamide-I was only detected in the four Robusta bean samples (0.98 -1.69 mg/g). Furthermore, the data suggest that there may be significant disparity in the amounts of javamide-II even in Robusta varieties. This study provides new information that javamide-I/-II can be found at higher levels in Robusta beans than in Arabica beans, and that the chemical composition of these two compounds appears to correlate with species designation within this genus.
Technical Abstract: Coffea arabica and C. canephora (Robusta) comprise the vast majority of coffee traded worldwide. Javamide-I/-II are phenolic amides found in coffee, which have been reported to contain several biological activities related to human health. However, there is little information about the amounts of javamide-I/-II in different Arabica varieties and in Robusta coffee grown in different geographical regions. Javamide-I/-II were extracted from green beans of eight Arabica cultivars and four Robusta coffees from Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ethiopia, Hawaii, Papua New Guinea, Puerto Rico, India and Vietnam, and their amounts were quantified using the HPLC method with MS/MS and NMR confirmation. The MS/MS and NMR data confirmed javamide-I/-II isolated from 12 coffee beans as N-coumaroyltryptophan and N-caffeoyltryptophan, respectively. Javamide-II was detected at levels ranging from 3.5 to 4.9 mg/g in four Robusta bean samples and 0.08 to 0.29 mg/g in Arabica bean samples with little geographical influence. Unlike javamide-II, javamide-I was detected in some Arabica bean samples (0.04 -0.05 mg/g), although detected in all four Robusta bean samples (0.4 -0.8 mg/g). Surprisingly, the amounts of javamide-II in Robusta beans were more than 20 times higher than the average amount of javamide-II in Arabica beans (P < 0.05). Since the data showed that Robusta beans had relatively high levels of javamide-I/-II compared to Arabica beans, we investigated javamide-I/-II as bio-markers in correlating with the designation of Arabica and Robusta species and found that eight masked coffee bean samples were correctly designated into Arabica and Robusta group by the levels of javamide-I/-II in the samples. All together, the data suggest that javamide-I/-II can be found at higher levels in Robusta beans than in Arabica beans, and that the levels of these two compounds may be used as bio-markers in correlating with species designation.