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Research Project: Countermeasures to Control and Eradicate Foreign Animal Diseases of Swine

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Title: Phylodynamics of parapoxvirus genus in Mexico (2007–2011)

item BRACHT, ALEXA - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)
item HOLE, KATE - Canadian Food Inspection Agency
item BRITO, BARBARA - Oak Ridge Institute For Science And Education (ORISE)
item Gladue, Douglas
item CARILLO, CONSUELO - Animal And Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS)

Submitted to: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 7/3/2018
Publication Date: 7/4/2018
Citation: Velazquez-Salinas, L., Ramirez-Medina, E., Bracht, A.J., Hole, K., Brito, B., Gladue, D.P., Carillo, C. 2018. Phylodynamics of parapoxvirus genus in Mexico (2007–2011). Infection, Genetics and Evolution. .

Interpretive Summary: Different viruses can cause similar symptoms in the infected host. Such is the case of vesicular diseases in animals where similar lesions caused by different viruses are hard to clinically differentiate. This is particularly important to distinguish foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) a highly transmissible and economically devastating animal disease that is exotic in North America (US, Canada and Mexico). When vesicular lesions are observed in animals, it is important to know what viruses are causing disease in order to know which tests are required to determine the cause of the clinical signs. In this manuscript we describe viruses belonging to the Parapoxvirus genus that were found causing vesicular-like lesions in cattle, goats and sheep in Mexico from 2007-2011. Some of these virus strains are similar to virus strains circulating in USA and Canada. This information is useful in the development of better diagnostic tests for vesicular diseases.

Technical Abstract: Parapoxvirus (PPV) genus comprises bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and ORF virus (ORFV), a group of epithelotrophic DNA viruses belonging to the Poxviridae family. Since the infection of livestock with all these three viruses clinically resemble the lesions produced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), their rapid diagnostic is essential in a FMDV free country like Mexico. However, currently very little is known about the importance of this viral genus in Mexico. In this study, we attempted to describe for the first time the molecular epidemiology of the PPV genus in Mexico by using a collection of 124 epithelial samples previously screened negative for FMDV and vesicular stomatitis virus, and collected between 2007 and 2011 form naturally infected goats, sheep and cows in Mexico. Our results indicate that from 2007 through 2011 different PPV were present in 20 out of 32 states covering from northern to southern Mexico. Our Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of PPV in Mexico during the five years of this study. Additionally, we described the existence of two different ORFV genetic lineages clearly host associated (sheep or goat), which also appears phylogenetically associated to current ORFV strains circulating in USA and Canada. The results generated in this study highlight the importance of PPV genus in Mexico and open the possibility for future studies describing with more detail the importance of this genus in North America.