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ARS Home » Plains Area » Fargo, North Dakota » Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center » Cereal Crops Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #341251

Research Project: Genetic Improvement of Durum and Spring Wheat for Quality and Resistance to Diseases and Pests

Location: Cereal Crops Research

Title: Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication

Author
item Avni, Raz - Tel Aviv University
item Nave, Moran - Tel Aviv University
item Barad, Omer - Nrgene
item Baruch, Kobi - Nrgene
item Twardziok, Sven - Helmholtz Centre
item Gundlach, Heidrun - Helmholtz Centre
item Hale, Iago - University Of New Hampshire
item Mascher, Martin - Leibniz Institute Of Plant Genetics And Crop Plant Research
item Spannagl, Manuel - Helmholtz Centre
item Wiebe, Krystalee - University Of Saskatchewan
item Jordan, Katherine - Kansas State University
item Golan, Guy - Hebrew University Of Jerusalem
item Faris, Justin
item Distelfeld, Assaf - Tel Aviv University

Submitted to: Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 6/8/2017
Publication Date: 7/7/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5801901
Citation: Avni, R., Nave, M., Barad, O., Baruch, K., Twardziok, S.O., Gundlach, H., Hale, I., Mascher, M., Spannagl, M., Wiebe, K., Jordan, K.W., Golan, G., Deek, J., Ben-Zvi, B., Ben-Zvi, G., Himmelbach, A., MacLachlan, R.P., Sharpe, A.G., Fritz, A., Ben-David, R., Budak, H., Fahima, T., Korol, A., Faris, J.D., Hernandez, A., Mikel, M.A., Levy, A.A., Steffenson, B., Maccaferri, M., Tuberosa, R., Cattivelli, L., Faccioli, P., Ceriotti, A., Kashkush, K., Pourkheirandish, M., Komatsuda, T., Eilam, T., Sela, H., Sharon, A., Ohad, N., Chamovitz, D.A., Mayer, K.F.X., Stein, N., Ronen, G., Peleg, Z., Pozniak, C.J., Akhunov, E.D., Distelfeld, A. 2017. Wild emmer genome architecture and diversity elucidate wheat evolution and domestication. Science. 357:93-97.

Interpretive Summary: Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent over 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge of the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully-assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes, which control the premature disarticulation of the heads, a trait known as shattering. The mutations in the TtBtr1 genes were key to the domestication of wheat because farmers were subsequently able to harvest the grains while still attached to the plant. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.

Technical Abstract: Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the founder crops that likely drove the Neolithic transition to sedentary agrarian societies in the Fertile Crescent over 10,000 years ago. Identifying genetic modifications underlying wheat's domestication requires knowledge of the genome of its allo-tetraploid progenitor, wild emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). We report a 10.1-gigabase assembly of the 14 chromosomes of wild tetraploid wheat, as well as analyses of gene content, genome architecture, and genetic diversity. With this fully-assembled polyploid wheat genome, we identified the causal mutations in Brittle Rachis 1 (TtBtr1) genes controlling shattering, a key domestication trait. A study of genomic diversity among wild and domesticated accessions revealed genomic regions bearing the signature of selection under domestication. This reference assembly will serve as a resource for accelerating the genome-assisted improvement of modern wheat varieties.