|Wilson, Nina - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Mcmaster, Nicole - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Gantulga, Dash - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Soyars, Cara - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Knott, Ken - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Senger, Ryan - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
|Schmale, David - Virginia Polytechnic Institution & State University|
Submitted to: Toxins
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/11/2017
Publication Date: 4/15/2017
Citation: Wilson, N.M., McMaster, N., Gantulga, D., Soyars, C., McCormick, S.P., Knott, K., Senger, R.S., Schmale, D.G. 2017. Modification of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol using microorganisms isolated from environmental samples. Toxins. 9(4):1-11.
Interpretive Summary: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced when the fungus Fusarium infects small grains including wheat and barley. Ingestion of DON contaminated grain can cause diarrhea, hemorrhaging, and feed refusal. In this research we found that bacteria in soil collected from agricultural and landscape fields were able to detoxify DON both in culture and in contaminated grain. This research demonstrates the potential of microorganisms in the environment to be used to remediate mycotoxin contaminated materials such as the fuel ethanol bioproducts that are used in animal feed.
Technical Abstract: The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of wheat, barley, and maize. New strategies are needed to reduce or eliminate DON in feed and food products. Microorganisms from plant and soil samples collected in Blacksburg, VA, USA, were screened by incubation in a mineral salt media containing 100 µg/mL DON and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Two mixed cultures derived from soil samples consistently decreased DON levels in assays using DON as the sole carbon source. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis indicated that 3-keto-4-deoxynivalenol was the major byproduct of DON. 16s rRNA sequencing revealed these mixed cultures included mostly members of the genera Acinetobacter, Leadbetterella, and Gemmata. Incubation of one of these mixed cultures with wheat samples naturally contaminated with 7.1 µg/mL DON indicated nearly complete conversion of DON to the non-toxic 3-epimer-DON (3-epi-DON). Our work extends previous studies that have demonstrated the potential for bioprospecting for microorganisms from the environment to remediate or modify mycotoxins for commercial applications, such as the reduction of mycotoxins in fuel ethanol co-products.