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ARS Home » Midwest Area » Peoria, Illinois » National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research » Plant Polymer Research » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #340568

Research Project: Improved Utilization of Proteinaceous Crop Co-Products

Location: Plant Polymer Research

Title: Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx

Author
item Hay, William
item Vaughn, Steven
item Byars, Jeffrey
item Selling, Gordon
item Holthaus, Derek - Tic Gums, Inc
item Price, Neil

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: 9/12/2017
Publication Date: 9/13/2017
Publication URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/5808735
Citation: Hay, W.T., Vaughn, S.F., Byars, J.A., Selling, G.W., Holthaus, D.M., Price, N.P. 2017. Physical, rheological, functional and film properties of a novel emulsifier: Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP) from Vitis riparia Michx. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(39):8754-8762. https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12034.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/aocs.12034

Interpretive Summary: This research has determined the value of a new emulsifier which can be found throughout much of the United States which could replace the imported gum Arabic and provide improved properties. Emulsifiers are a class of compounds which allow two incompatible materials to mix and remain mixed. These are often used in salad dressings in order to provide a liquid which does not separate and will have the same ingredients at the top of the bottle as on the bottom. Emulsifiers are also used in flavored drinks, where one flavorant is not water soluble, and the emulsifier keeps the flavoring spread evenly throughout the liquid. Gum Arabic (GA) is imported from regions of the world where supply, quality and price vary considerably. Recently a unique sugar, named Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), was isolated from a native North American grape species. FGP was found to be a superior emulsifier to GA. In order for FGP to be used commercially, it must be fully characterized. In this research we have characterized the flow properties, heat properties and film properties of FGP. In all tests, FGP was superior to GA. It was also determined that FGP contained little to no protein, which would greatly reduce the possibility of protein based allergies in foods containing FGP.This new novel polysaccharide has superior properties to GA and could be utilized as a replacement in food and pharmaceutical applications resulting in an additional revenue stream to local producers.

Technical Abstract: A novel emulsifier, Frost grape polysaccharide (FGP), isolated from natural exudate of the species Vitis riparia Michx, was physically and rheologically characterized. The determination of the physical, structural, thermodynamic, emulsification, film, and rheological properties of FGP provide essential details for the commercial adoption of this novel plant polysaccharide. FGP is capable of producing exceptionally stable emulsions when compared with the industrially ubiquitous gum arabic (GA). The FGP isolate contained a negligible amount of nitrogen (0.03%), indicating that it does not contain an associated glycoprotein, unlike GA. Solutions of FGP have a high degree of thermostability, displaying no loss in viscosity with temperature cycling and no thermal degradation when held at 90°C. FGP is an excellent film former, producing high tensile strength films which remain intact at temperatures up to 200°C. This work identified a number of potential food and pharmaceutical applications where FGP is significantly superior to GA.