Skip to main content
ARS Home » Southeast Area » Stuttgart, Arkansas » Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr » Research » Publications at this Location » Publication #337532

Research Project: The Role of Mucosal Surfaces and Microflora in Immunity and Disease Prevention

Location: Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Cntr

Title: Use of peracetic acid to disinfect water: toxicity to fish

item Straus, David - Dave
item MEINELT, THOMAS - Leibniz Institute Of Freshwater Ecology And Inland Fisheries
item PEDERSEN, LARS-FLEMMING - Technical University Of Denmark

Submitted to: Book of Abstracts World Aquaculture Society
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: 4/14/2017
Publication Date: 6/26/2017
Citation: Straus, D.L., Meinelt, T., Pedersen, L. 2017. Use of peracetic acid to disinfect water: toxicity to fish [abstract]. Book of Abstracts World Aquaculture 2017, June 26-30, 2017, Cape Town, South Africa. p. 688.

Interpretive Summary:

Technical Abstract: There has been strong interest in aquaculture for the use of peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant to prevent freshwater fish pathogens. PAA is a stabilized mixture of acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and water that does not leave dangerous residues in the environment when it breaks down as most compounds do. It is a promising disinfectant in the US aquaculture industry to control parasites and fungus. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) first registered PAA as an antimicrobial in 1985 for indoor use on hard surfaces (hospitals). EPA registrations now include: sanitation in food/beverage plants, agricultural premises, wineries/breweries, greenhouse equipment, and animal housing; it is also used to prevent bio-film formation in paper/pulp industries and as a disinfectant for wastewater treatment. PAA is used extensively in Europe, and our international collaborations have studied its effectiveness to many pathogens. However, there is a lack of data on its toxicity to fish. Twelve fish species were exposed to PAA in well water to determine its toxicity. Experiments were designed to provide the 24 h LC50 (median lethal concentration), LOEC (lowest observed effect concentration) and NOEC (no observed effect concentration) values for each species at approximately 23C. Ten fish were placed in aquaria containing 10 L of well water (pH = 7.5, alkalinity = 200 mg/L, hardness = 125 mg/L). Each experiment consisted of 6 PAA concentrations and an untreated control; there were 3 replicates of each aquaria. The mean LC50 value for all species tested was 5.3 mg/L PAA with the range of 2.8 mg/L to 9.3 mg/L. Black fathead minnows and blue tilapia were most and least sensitive, respectively. The mean NOEC value for all species tested was 3.7 mg/L PAA with the range of 1.9 mg/L to 5.8 mg/L. This information can be used to approximate safe treatment levels; however, application must be tailored to fit specific species and individual water quality and chemistry.